s u r f a c t a n t s in a nut shell by tom schoenberg schoenberg consulting n.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
S U R F A C T A N T S “IN A NUT SHELL” By Tom Schoenberg SCHOENBERG CONSULTING PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
S U R F A C T A N T S “IN A NUT SHELL” By Tom Schoenberg SCHOENBERG CONSULTING

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 72

S U R F A C T A N T S “IN A NUT SHELL” By Tom Schoenberg SCHOENBERG CONSULTING - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 580 Views
  • Uploaded on

S U R F A C T A N T S “IN A NUT SHELL” By Tom Schoenberg SCHOENBERG CONSULTING. SURFACTANT CLASSES. ANIONICS AMPHOTERICS/BETAINES CATIONICS NONIONICS. ANIONICS. Definition: The anion portion of the molecule is lipophilic. Example: Sodium Lauryl Sulfate:

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'S U R F A C T A N T S “IN A NUT SHELL” By Tom Schoenberg SCHOENBERG CONSULTING' - Samuel


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
s u r f a c t a n t s in a nut shell by tom schoenberg schoenberg consulting
S U R F A C T A N T S“IN A NUT SHELL”By Tom SchoenbergSCHOENBERG CONSULTING
surfactant classes
SURFACTANT CLASSES
  • ANIONICS
  • AMPHOTERICS/BETAINES
  • CATIONICS
  • NONIONICS
slide3

ANIONICS

Definition: The anion portion of the

molecule is lipophilic.

Example: Sodium Lauryl Sulfate:

Cation: Sodium (hydrophilic)

Anion: Laurylsulfate (lipophilic)

slide4

SODIUM LAURYL SUFATE

Lipophilic Hydrophilic

most commonly used anionics
MOST COMMONLY USED ANIONICS
  • Alcohol Sulfates.
  • Ethoxylated Alcohol Sulfates.
  • Sulfosuccinates.
  • Linear Alkylbenzene Sulfonates.
  • Alpha Olefin Sulfonates.
alcohol sulfates
ALCOHOL SULFATES
  • History: Commercial usage began in the mid 1940’s.
  • Made by the reaction of a fatty alcohol (C8-C18) with sulfur trioxide.
  • The alcohol sulfuric acid is neutralized with sodium or ammonium hydroxide, or an amine.
characteristics of alcohol sulfates
CHARACTERISTICS OF ALCOHOL SULFATES
  • C12 (Lauryl) provides the highest foam.
  • Hydrolyzes at pH < 4.5.
  • Can be readily thickened when combined with alkanolamides, betaines, amine oxides etc.
  • Thickening can be greatly enhanced by the addition of electrolytes
  • (NaCl, KCl etc.).
  • Light color.
  • Bland odor.
slide8

MAJOR APPLICATIONS

  • Shampoos
  • Body Wash
  • Liquid Hand Soap
  • Bath Products
  • Facial Cleansers
  • Syndet Bars
ethoxylated alcohol sulfates
ETHOXYLATED ALCOHOL SULFATES
  • History: Commercial usage began in the early 1950’s.
  • Made by the sulfation of an ethoxylated fatty alcohol.
  • Typically, the alcohol is lauryl (C12) and ethylene oxide is in the range of 2-3 moles.
  • The salts are typically sodium or ammonium.
slide10

SODIUM LAURETH SUFATE

Lipophilic Hydrophilic

properties of ether sulfates
PROPERTIES OF ETHER SULFATES
  • More soluble than alcohol sulfates.
  • Hydrolyze at pH < 4.5.
  • Enhance foam stability of LAS (Linear Alkylbenzene Sulfonates).
  • More mild than alcohol sulfates. Mildness is significantly improved when blended with a sulfosuccinate.
slide12

EFFECT OF BLENDS ON IRRITATION15% ACTIVE

MEAN

SCORE

6.0

SLS

4.0

AOS

2.0

SLES

0

0

25

50

75

100

PERCENT DISODIUM OLEAMIDO MEA SULFOSUCCINATE

linear alkylbenzene sulfonate las
LINEAR ALKYLBENZENE SULFONATE (LAS)
  • Prepared by the sulfonation of alkyl (typically C12) benzene with sulfur trioxide.
  • Salts are typically sodium, ammonium or amines.
slide14

SODIUM DODECYLBENZENE SUFONATE

Lipophilic Hydrophilic

applications of las
APPLICATIONS OF LAS
  • Primary surfactant used in household and industrial products: liquid dish wash, car wash, laundry, etc.
  • Rarely used in personal care.
  • Stable in acidic products.
alpha olefin sulfonates
ALPHA OLEFIN SULFONATES
  • Made by the sulfonation of C14-16 alpha olefin.
  • Product is actually a mixture of Na 2,3 alkenylsulfonate and Na 3-hydroxy-alkanesulfonate.
alpha olefin sulfonates1
ALPHA OLEFIN SULFONATES

Sodium 2,3 alkenylsulfonate

Sodium 3-hydroxy-alkanesulfonate

properties
PROPERTIES
  • Excellent foamer.
  • Difficult to thicken.
  • Stable in acid.
  • Used in both personal care and house hold cleansers.
  • More mild than LAS.
applications
APPLICATIONS
  • Liquid dish wash.
  • Acid cleaners.
  • Car wash.
  • Liquid hand soap.
  • Sulfate free cleansers.
sulfosuccinates
SULFOSUCCINATES
  • Monoesters are primarily used in personal care cleansers.
  • Diester

(sodium dioctylsulfosuccinate) is the most cost effective wetting agent available.

slide22

TWO TYPES

MONOESTER(GOOD FOAMER, MILD)

DIESTER(POOR FOAMER, LOW SOLUBILITY)

slide23

MONOESTERS ARE FROM TWO SOURCES

  • MONOALKANOL AMIDES
  • FATTY ALCOHOLS, OR ETHOXYLATED ALCOHOLS
general differences between sulfosuccinate types
GENERAL DIFFERENCES BETWEEN SULFOSUCCINATE TYPES

AMIDE

  • Mild to skin and eyes.
  • Thicken and condition.

FATTY ALCOHOL

  • Mild to skin.
  • Foams better.
  • Water white color.
properties1
PROPERTIES
  • Will hydrolyze in acid or alkaline conditions.
  • Should be formulated in a pH range of 5.0-7.0.
  • Are mild to skin and eyes.
  • The most cost/effective mild surfactants available.
effect of blends on skin irritation
EFFECT OF BLENDS ON SKIN IRRITATION

5.0

4.0

3.0

4.7

4.0

2.0

1.0

1.5

0.9

0.9

0

100/0

75/25

50/50

25/75

0/100

SLES/DSLSS*

*SLES: Sodium Laureth Sulfate

DSLSS: Disodium Laureth Sulfosuccinate

effect of blends on foam

EFFECT OF BLENDS ON FOAM

500

400

FOAM

HT.

(ml.)

300

450

420

200

350

100

0

100/0

25/75

0/100

SLES/DSLSS*

*SLES: Sodium Laureth Sulfate

DSLSS: Disodium Laureth Sulfosuccinate

slide30

AMPHOTERICS

Zwitter Ion (Isolectric Form)

Cationic (Acid Form)

Anionic (Alkaline Form)

properties of amphoterics for hi i applications
PROPERTIES OF AMPHOTERICSFOR HI&I APPLICATIONS
  • Stable in alkaline and acid conditions.
  • The propionate and dipropionate type are excellent for HI&I cleaners.
  • Low and high foaming is dependant on the molecular weight of the fatty moiety.
  • A C8 will be a low foamer, whereas, a C12 is a high foamer.
examples of caustic solubility
EXAMPLES OF CAUSTIC SOLUBILITY

Compound

Coco Dipropionate

Caprylic (C8) Dipropionate

Caprylic (C8) Propionate

Caprylic (C8) Diacetate

Coco Propionate

Octyl Betaine

Sodium Xylene Sulfonate

%NaOH

41

38

30

28

25

23

22

comparative foam heights
COMPARATIVE FOAM HEIGHTS

Foam Ht.

210

155

145

50

30

10

Compound

Cocamidopropyl Betaine

Coco Propionate

Coco Dipropionate

Octyl (C8) Betaine

Capryl (C8) amidopropyl Betaine

Caprylic (C8) Diacetate

properties of amphoterics for personal cleansing
PROPERTIES OF AMPHOTERICS FOR PERSONAL CLEANSING
  • Stable over a wide pH range.
  • Mild to skin and eye.
  • Reduce irritation of ether sulfates.
slide35

EFFECT OF BETAINE AMPHOTERIC WITH SODIUM LAURETH SULFATE ON EYE IRRITATION

DRAIZESCORE

COCAMIDOPROPYLBETAINE

40

30

20

10

DISODIUMCOCOAMPHODIACETATE

0

SLESAMPHO/BETAINE

2575

0100

1000

7525

5050

betaines

BETAINES

TWO TYPES

1. Alkyl

2. Alkylamido

slide37

REASONS FOR BETAINE GROWTH

  • Formulators Became Familiar With the Advantages.
  • Recently Used In Household and Institutional Cleaners.
  • Favored Replacement for Diethanolamides
slide38

BETAINES

Cationic (Acid Form)

Zwitter Ion (Isoelectric Form)

slide40

MODEL FORMULA

Wt.% 8.0 2.090.0

Sodium Lauryl Sulfate Amphoteric or BetaineWaterpH=7.0

slide41

COMPARATIVE VISCOSITY BUILDING

CPS(0000)

6.0

COCAMIDOPROPYL BETAINE

5.0

4.0

DISODIUMCOCOAMPHODIACETATE

3.0

2.0

1.0

2.0

3.0

4.0

5.0

6.0

PERCENT NaCl

slide43

EFFECT OF FREE AMINE ON EYE IRRITATION:BETAINE VS. AMPHOTERIC

DRAIZESCORE

ACTIVES: 15.0%pH: 7.0

50

COCAMIDOPROPYLBETAINE

40

30

20

DISODIUMCOCOAMPHODIACETATE

10

0

4.0

5.0

1.0

2.0

3.0

PERCENT FREE AMINE

slide44

EFFECT OF BLENDING BETAINE WITH AMPHOTERIC ON EYE IRRITATION:

DRAIZESCORE

ACTIVES: 15.0%pH: 7.0

40

30

20

10

0

1000

7525

5050

0100

2575

COCAMIDOPROPYL BETAINE

DISODIUM COCOAMPHODIACETATE

PERCENT

slide45

GENERAL DIFFERENCES

Betaines

Amphoterics

Mild to Skin

Mild to Eyes

Foam Boosting

Viscosity Building

cationic surfactants
CATIONIC SURFACTANTS
  • Definition: The cation is the lipophilic portion of the molecule.
  • Types:
  • Quaternary Ammonium Compounds
  • Amine Salts
cationics
CATIONICS
  • Amine Salt:
  • Lipophilic Hydrophilic
  • Quaternary:
  • Lipophilic Hydrophilic
properties of quaternary ammonium compounds
PROPERTIES OF QUATERNARY AMMONIUM COMPOUNDS
  • Lower molecular weight are typically used as biocides.
  • Higher molecular weight (C18) are excellent hair conditioners.
  • Most are incompatible with anionic surfactants.
  • Low foaming.
  • Extremely sensitive to hard water and usually require a chelant.
major uses of quats
MAJOR USES OF “QUATS”
  • Biocides.
  • Fabric Softeners.
  • Hair Conditioners.
  • Antistatic Agents.
  • “Cheater” Wax.
  • Corrosion Inhibitors.
  • Leather Softening.
  • Pigment Dispersants.
  • Sewage Flocculants.
biocides
BIOCIDES

The most commonly used for household and industrial applications:

Lauryl Dimethyl Benzyl Ammonium Chloride

biocidal quats
BIOCIDAL “QUATS”

MODE OF ACTION

  • Reduce surface tension at interface.
  • Attracted to negatively charged surfaces, including microorganisms.
  • Denature protein of bacterial or fungi cells.
  • Affect the metabolic reactions of the cell.
  • Vital substances leak out.
  • Causes death.
fabric softeners
FABRIC SOFTENERS

Most widely used

  • Distearyl dimethyl ammonium chloride.
  • Dialkyl imidazolinium methyl methoslfate.
most widely used quats used in hair conditioners
MOST WIDELY USED “QUATS” USED IN HAIR CONDITIONERS
  • Cetrimonium Chloride
  • Stearalkonium Chloride
  • Distearyldimonium Chloride
fatty amine salts
FATTY AMINE SALTS
  • Compatible with anionic surfactants.
  • Do not depress foam.
  • Excellent thickeners.
  • Insoluble in alkaline media.
  • Some are very mild to skin and eyes.
most commonly used

MOST COMMONLY USED

Alkyamidopropyl Dimethylamine

Alkyamidopropyl Morpholine

comparative eye irritation

COMPARATIVE EYE IRRITATION

100

80

60

40

75

58

40

20

4

0

Isostearamidopropyl

Morpholine Lactate

Stearalkonium

Chloride

Cetrimonium

Chloride

Distearyldimethylammonium

Chloride

nonionics
NONIONICS
  • Alkanol Amides.
  • Amine Oxides.
  • Ethoxylated Nonyl Phenol or Alcohols.
preparation of alkanol amides
PREPARATION OF ALKANOL AMIDES

Made by the reaction of a mono or diethanol amine with a fatty acid, methylester or fatty glyceride, (e.g., coconut oil).

reaction dea amide
REACTION(DEA Amide)

Diethanolamine + Fatty Acid Fatty Diethanolamide + Water

alkanol amides
ALKANOL AMIDES
  • Most cost/effective thickener and foam stablizer available.
  • History: Commercially available in the mid 1940’s.
  • Diethanolamides are being phased out of formulas due to reported “cancer link”.
  • They are being replaced by: Betaines, Amine Oxides, Monoethanolamides and Monoisopropanolamides.
monoethanol and monoisopropanol amides
MONOETHANOL AND MONOISOPROPANOL AMIDES
  • Both are solid at room temperature.
  • Both are used as replacements for diethanol amides.
  • For clear products the level should be low, or the product can haze due to the low solubility of the amides.
  • The monoethanol amides have trace amounts of DEA which is not accepted by some customers. The MIPA is a better choice since DEA does not exist in MIPA.
amine oxides
AMINE OXIDES
  • Prepared by the oxidation of a fatty tertiary amine with hydrogen peroxide.
  • They are weakly cationic on the acid side.
  • The alkyl amine oxides are stable in the presence of sodium hypochlorite and are excellent surfactants for bleach cleaners.
  • Not widely used in personal care.
slide63

REACTION(Amine Oxide)

Hydrogen

Peroxide

Fatty Tertiary +

Amine

Fatty Amine +

Oxide

Water

ethoxylated alcohols and nonyl phenols
ETHOXYLATED ALCOHOLS AND NONYL PHENOLS

CHARACTERISTICS

  • Fatty end of molecule is lipophilic and ethoxylatated end is hydrophilic.
  • Excellent detergent and wetting properties.
  • Poor foamers.
  • Can not be thickened with other surfactants.
manufactured by
MANUFACTURED BY:
  • Ethoxylation of a natural derived straight chain fatty alcohol.
  • Ethoxylation of synthetic branched chain alcohol.
  • Ethoxylation of nonyl phenol.
reaction ethoxylated alcohol
REACTION(Ethoxylated Alcohol)

Ethoxylated Alcohol

Fatty

Alcohol

+

Ethylene

Oxide

regulatory status of ethoxylated nonyl phenols
REGULATORY STATUS OF ETHOXYLATED NONYL PHENOLS
  • Banned in Europe.
  • Banned in some states.
  • Will eventually be banned in the U.S. and Canada.
h i i applications of nonionics
H I & I APPLICATIONS OF NONIONICS
  • Commercial Dishwash.
  • Home Floor Carpet Care.
  • Dairy and Food.
  • Hard Surface Cleaning.
other industries
OTHER INDUSTRIES
  • Paints and Coatings.
  • Agrochemicals.
  • Electroplating.
  • Textiles.
  • Pulp and Paper.
  • Oil Field.
  • Metal Working.
some new guys on the block natural surfactants
SOME NEW GUYS ON THE BLOCK “NATURAL SURFACTANTS”
  • Decylglucoside: Derived from sugar and coconut oil.
  • Cocoyl Glutamate: Derived from glutamic acid (amino acid) and coconut oil.
  • Cocosulfate: Derived from coconut oil.
current trends and limitations
CURRENT TRENDS AND LIMITATIONS
  • Natural.
  • Certified Organic.
  • Animal friendly.
  • DEA Free.
  • Formaldehyde Free.
  • Nitrosamine Free.
  • Sulfate Free.
  • Low Dioxane.