ROCKETS CARLOS MACIEL PRINCIPAL OF TECHNOLOGY JANUARY 2006 TABLE OF CONTENTS PRACTICE ROCKETRY INTRODUCTION MODERN USES HISTORY NASA LAUNCHES TIMELINE POSITIVES & NEGATIVE PRINCIPAL CONCLUSION INDEX HOW ROCKETS WORK SCIENTIFIC METHOD GLOSSARY NATURE OF SCIENCE RESOURCES
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PRINCIPAL OF TECHNOLOGY
POSITIVES & NEGATIVE
HOW ROCKETS WORK
NATURE OF SCIENCE
All through the 13th to the 18th Century there were reports of many rocket experiments. For example, Joanes de Fontana of Italy designed a surface-running rocket-powered torpedo for setting enemy ships on fire. In 1650, a Polish artillery expert, Kazimierz Siemienowicz, published a series of drawings for a staged rocket. In 1696, Robert Anderson, an Englishman, published a two-part treatise on how to make rocket molds, prepare the propellants, and perform the calculations.
The evolution of the rocket has made it an indispensable tool in the exploration of space. For centuries, rockets have provided ceremonial and warfare uses starting with the ancient Chinese, the first to create rockets.
The rocket apparently made its debut on the pages of history as a fire arrow used by the Chin Tartars in 1232 AD for fighting off a Mongol assault on Kai-feng-fu. The lineage to the immensely larger rockets now used as space launch vehicles is unmistakable. But for centuries rockets were in the main rather small, and their use was confined principally to weaponry, the projection of lifelines in sea rescue, signaling, and fireworks displays. Not until the 20th century did a clear understanding of the principles of rockets emerge, and only then did the technology of large rockets begin to evolve. Thus, as far as spaceflight and space science are concerned, the story of rockets up to the beginning of the 20th century was largely prologue.
©The History of Rockets
Congreve Rockets 19th
Chinese Fired Arrows 13th century
Step Rocket 16th century
Invention of Gunpowder 1st
Liquid Propellant Rockets - 1926
V2 Rocket - 1944
X ROCKETS- 20??
Jupiter C Launch of Explorer 1 - 1958
Delta Clippers- 1995
Pegasus - 1900
Mercury Redstone - 1961
Delta, Scout - 1960
Atlas - 1963
Apollo Saturn 1b - 1968
Space Shuttle - 1981
Skylab Saturn v - 1973
Apollo Saturn v - 1968
Gemini Titan - 1965
Rockets have a built-in guidance and control system so they are capable of determining their own position and attitude, but once a satellite has separated, its position and attitude are controlled from terrestrial or solar sensors so it is not possible to release a satellite from a rocket during night time of the Earth.Launch times are dependent on factors such as the season and orbital insertion, and require delicate calculations, leaving only some 30 minutes to two hours during a day when launch conditions are ideal. If these times are missed, there is no other option but to cancel a launch during that day. For example, the H-II Launch Vehicle No. 4 launched in Octobr 1996 started its countdown three days before the actual take-off, and work allocated for each day was steadily carried out. The final countdown started seven minutes before the lift-off.
Six seconds before take-off, the first-stage of rocket ignites. As the rocket takes off, its solid rocket boosters (SRB-A) ignite. With a roaring sound, immediately after the rocket's full propulsion comes into operation, the rocket separates from its launch tower.At 105 seconds, the SRB-A separates after having burned for 100 seconds. At 220 seconds, the satellite faring separates. The first-stage of rocket stops firing after 389 seconds and at 399 seconds separates. At 405 seconds, the second-stage fires for the first time, and at 1,421 seconds, for the second time. At 1,664 seconds, the satellite separates, and is inserted into a geostationary transfer orbit.
Early in the 20th century, an American, Robert H. Goddard (1882-1945), conducted practical experiments in rocketry. He had become interested in a way of achieving higher altitudes than were possible for lighter-than-air balloons. He published a pamphlet in 1919 entitled A Method of Reaching Extreme Altitudes. It was a mathematical analysis of what is today called the meteorological sounding rocket.