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REVIEW FOR GEOLOGY 141 CHEMISTRY WHIZ SHEET (Follow along on p. 61). If one knows the chemical formula for a particular mineral, with a little help from this sheet, one could determine which mineral group it belongs to without a lot of rote memorization, as follows:. Colby Geology. OXIDES.

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slide1

REVIEW FOR GEOLOGY 141

CHEMISTRY WHIZ SHEET

(Follow along on p. 61)

If one knows the chemical formula for a particular

mineral, with a little help from this sheet, one could

determine which mineral group it belongs to without a lot of rote memorization, as follows:

Colby Geology

slide2

OXIDES

CORUNDUM

If a mineral formula ends with Ox,

like Specular Hematite and Oolitic Hematite (Fe2O3),

Magnetite (Fe3O4) or Corundum (Al2O3),

then that mineral belongs to the OXIDE group.

MAGNETITE

SPECULAR

HEMATITE

OOLITIC

HEMATITE

slide3

HYDROXIDES

If a mineral formula ends with OH,

like Limonite (FeOOH) or Bauxite,

then that mineral belongs to the HYDROXIDE group.

BAUXITE

LIMONITE

slide4

SULFIDES

If a mineral formula ends with Sx,

like Chalcopyrite (CuFeS2), Galena (PbS),

Pyrite (FeS2) or Sphalerite (Zn,FeS),

then that mineral belongs to the SULFIDE group.

SPHALERITE

GALENA

PYRITE

CHALCOPYRITE

slide5

CARBONATES

If a mineral formula ends with CO3,

like Calcite (CaCO3), or Dolomite (Ca,Mg(CO3)2)

then that mineral belongs to the CARBONATE group.

DOLOMITE

CALCITE

slide6

HALIDES

If a mineral formula ends with F, Cl, Br, I,

like Fluorite (CaF2) or Halite (NaCl),

then that mineral belongs to the HALIDE group.

HALITE

FLUORITE

slide7

SULFATES

If a mineral formula ends with or includes SO4,

like gypsum CaSO4•2H2O,

then that mineral belongs to the SULFATE group.

GYPSUM

slide8

NATIVE ELEMENTS

If a mineral formula is a single element,

like Native Copper (Cu),

then that mineral belongs to the NATIVE ELEMENTS.

GOLD

COPPER

SILVER

slide9

SILICATE MINERALS

The remainder of the minerals belong to the

SILICATE Group, and the respective subgroup

depends on how the silica tetrahedra (SiO4) are

attached within the mineral.

slide10

FRAMEWORK SILICATES

FRAMEWORK SILICATES include

Orthoclase (KAlSi3O8),

Oligoclase and Labradorite (Ca,Na) (Al,Si)4O8

and Quartz (SiO2).

Si:O ratio = 1:2

FELDSPAR

QUARTZ (SiO2)

slide11

SHEET SILICATES

SHEET SILICATES include

Biotite, Chlorite and Muscovite.

MUSCOVITE

BIOTITE

slide12

CHAIN SILICATES

SINGLE CHAIN SILICATES include Augite.

Si:O ratio = 1:3

AUGITE

slide13

CHAIN SILICATES

DOUBLE CHAIN SILICATES include

Actinolite and Hornblende.

Si:O ratio = 1:2.75

ACTINOLITE

HORNBLENDE

slide14

ISLAND SILICATES

ISLAND SILICATES include

Garnet, Olivine (Fe,Mg)2SiO4 and Staurolite.

Si:O ratio = 1:4

OLIVINE

STAUROLITE

GARNET