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TCP/IP & The BASIS License Manager The BASIS License Manager Requires TCP/IP & TCP/IP Hostname Resolution Overview of the the TCP/IP 4 Layer Model Hostname Resolution Using TCP/IP Utilities When Is The BLM Needed?

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tcp ip the basis license manager
TCP/IP & The BASIS License Manager
  • The BASIS License Manager Requires TCP/IP

& TCP/IP Hostname Resolution

  • Overview of the the TCP/IP 4 Layer Model
  • Hostname Resolution
  • Using TCP/IP Utilities
when is the blm needed
When Is The BLM Needed?
  • All PRO5 Products REV 2.10 And Up. The Exception Is Windows Single-user VPRO5 and Single-user ODBC.
  • Multi-user ODBC License
  • All BBj Products, Single Or Multi-user

Note: The BLM Can Run on All Operating Systems That Basis Builds Products For, Including Win95 or Win98. However, a Server O/S Is Highly Recommended, Like WINNT, SCO, HP-UX, AIX, Etc.

bbj and the basis license manager
BBj and the BASIS License Manager

The BLM Gives You the Ability to Dispense Licenses Anywhere on the Network, Regardless of the Operating System. And Now With the Implementation of BBj, Our Customers Are Ready for E-commerce and Enterprise Computing Like Never Before. This Process of Dispensing Licenses Is Done Through the Use of TCP/IP Hostname Resolution.

basis license manager install checklist
Basis License Manager Install Checklist
  • Identify Server(s) That Will Run the BLM
  • Must Have Working Network Card. This Is Required for (V)PRO5 Multi-user, ODBC Multi-user, All PRO5 Data Server Licenses and ALL BBj Licenses, Single or Multi-user.
  • TCP/IP Must Be Configured for Hostname Resolution
  • BASIS Product Media, Serial and Authorization Numbers Available
the tcp ip 4 layer model
THE TCP/IP 4 LAYER MODEL

Transmission Control Protocol

&

Internet Protocol Has 4 Main Layers

  • Application Layer
  • Transport Layer
  • Internet Layer
  • Network Layer
application layer
Window Socket Applications Uses port number and an address to which it will send and receive data; type of socket (stream or datagram); and an interface to which it is bound (protocol)

Sockets A socket is part if Inter Process Communication, in which two processes, either local or remote, exchange data (communicate)

Applications Like the

PRO5 DATA SERVER or the BLM

Netbios Applications

Netbios Over TCP/IP

For Example, Many NT Services Run Netbios Over TCP/IP; Like The ‘Server’ Service(browsing, Making Or Connecting To A Network Share)

APPLICATION LAYER
transport layer
TCP Provides Connection Orientated, Reliable Communications For Apps That Transfer Large Amounts Of Data Like The Pro5 Data Server.

UDP Provides Connectionless Communications And Does Not Guarantee To Deliver The Packets. Generally Used For Transferring Small Amounts Of Data.

TRANSPORT LAYER
slide9
TCP

Transmission Control Protocol

  • Stream Connection
  • Reliable and Sequenced
  • Ongoing Connection
slide10
UDP

User Datagram Protocol

  • Unreliable and Unsequenced
  • No Ongoing Connection
  • Allows Broadcast
internet layer
INTERNET LAYER
  • IP (INTERNET PROTOCOL)
  • ARP (ADDRESS RESOLUTION PROTOCOL
  • ICMP (INTERNET CONTROL MESSAGE PROTOCOL)
  • IGMP (INTERNET GROUP MANAGEMENT PROTOCOL)
ip internet protocol
IP INTERNET PROTOCOL
  • Primarily Responsible For Addressing And Routing Packets Between Hosts And Networks
  • IP Uses Either TCP or UDP to Move the Data Packets Across the Network.
arp address resolution protocol
ARPADDRESS RESOLUTION PROTOCOL
  • Obtains Hardware Addresses Of Hosts Located On The Same Physical Network.
  • Once The Hostname Is Resolved To The IP Address, ARP Map’s The Host IP Address To The Mac Address Of The Network Card
icmp internet control message protocol
ICMPINTERNET CONTROL MESSAGE PROTOCOL
  • Sends Messages And Reports Errors Regarding The Delivery Of The Packets
  • It Is Useful to Think of ICMP As One IP Package Talking to Another Host's IP Package, in Terms of Echo Request and Reply, Destination and Source, Time-Stamping, Time-to-Live, Etc.
igmp internet group management protocol
IGMP INTERNET GROUP MANAGEMENT PROTOCOL
  • Used By IP Hosts To Report Host Group Memberships To Local Multicast Routers
  • Similar to ICMP, but the Messages Sent Are Referred to Groups of Nodes Instead of Individual Nodes. Routers Use IGMP to Multicast Out Messages to Multiple Nodes.
network layer
NETWORK LAYER
  • Lan Technologies Such As Ethernet, Token Ring, FDDI
  • Wan Technologies Such As Frame Relay, Fiber Optic, ATM, Serial Lines (Dial Up) Where PPP (Point To Point Protocol) Is Used, For Example With VPN.
slide17
This Can Be Defined As the Process of Converting Humanly-Friendly Names Into Computer-friendly Numbers (IP Addresses)

TCP/IP Hostname Resolution

tcp ip hostname resolution
TCP/IP HOSTNAME RESOLUTION
  • When You Attempt To Access A Remote System Via It’s Hostname, The Hostname Resolution Process Begins In This Order.
  • Local Cache
  • Hosts Files
  • DNS Server
local cache uses arp
To Minimize The Number Of Broadcasts over The Network, Arp Maintains Address Mappings For Future Use.

Each Time You Communicate With A Host, An Entry Is Made In Arp Cache. The Entry Is Time stamped. If Not Used Again Within Two Minutes, It Is Deleted.

Note: You Can Set the

‘Arpcachelife’ Parameter in the Registry.

LOCAL CACHE USES ARP
hosts files used in unix and windows
HOSTS FILES USED IN UNIX AND WINDOWS

In ASCII Format.

  • Simplest Method, Using A Lookup Table
  • Hosts Files List Ip Addresses, Each Followed

By One Or More Hostnames (Separated By Spaces

Or Tabs) To Act As Aliases.

  • Windows 95/98: File Is Located In

/Windows/ Directory

  • Windows NT: File Is Located In

/Winnt/system32/drivers/etc/ Directory

  • Unix: File Is Located At Root

In The /etc/ Directory.

host file example
HOST FILE EXAMPLE

#Host Files

127.0.0.1 local host # Loopback to local host

192.168.0.10 mypc # Local PC

192.168.2.1 scosysv # Frequently used server

209.150.48.18 orion orion.basis.com # gateway server

#end file

Entries in the Host File Are Resolved Quickly, and Do Not Require Connection to a Name Server.

Frequently Used for Ftp, Telnet Sessions, As Well As Client Server Applications Like Basis Products, in Small User Environments.

domain name service dns
DOMAIN NAME SERVICE (DNS)
  • The Standard For Name Resolution On The Internet And Used Locally In Medium & Large User Environments
  • First Developed For Unix
  • A DNS Client Sends A Hostname To A DNS Server, And Receives An IP Address In Response.
  • These Names Can Be Simple Netbios Node Names Like Leghorn, To FQDN Like Leghorn.Basis.Com
domain name server dns
DOMAIN NAME SERVER

(DNS)

UNIX

Note: DNS Is a Little to Complex for Our Discussion Here. DNS Should Only Be Done By a Qualified Network System Administrator.

We Will However, Briefly Review the Topic.

unix dns uses configuration files
UNIX DNS USES CONFIGURATION FILES
  • named.conf file: found in /etc/ directory

// type domain source file or host

zone "." {

type hint;

file "db.cache";

zone "basis.com" in {

type master;

file "db.basis";

check-names warn;

zone "1.168.192.in-addr.arpa" in {

type master;

file "db.192.168.1";

check-names warn;

  • Resolv.conf
db cache file
db.cache file
  • A Host can use the db.cache file to remember names and
  • Addresses it has learned. Mainly used for quick name resolution
  • for an intranet.
  • #db.cache file
  • \par kazoo2:/usr/lib/named$ more db.cache
  • \par ;
  • \par ; Cache file for the Internal DNS domain for basis.com.
  • \par ; Each non-internet connected name server for basis.com should load this.
  • \par ;
  • \par ; don't use this on our internet connected host!.
  • \par ;
  • \par . 99999999 IN NS kazoo2.basis.com.
  • \par . 99999999 IN NS dino.basis.com.
  • \par kazoo2.basis.com. 99999999 IN A 192.168.1.21
  • \par dino.basis.com. 99999999 IN A 192.168.1.140
db basis file

Provides Name to Address Mapping for Basis.Com

  • ; The origin "basis.com" is added to all names not ending with a dot.
  • ;
  • @ IN SOA dino.basis.com. root.dino.basis.com. (
  • 434 ; Serial
  • 300 ; Refresh after 5 minutes
  • 3600 ; Retry after 1 hour
  • 604800 ; Expire after 1 week
  • 86400 ) ; Minimum TTL of 1 day
  • ;
  • ; Name servers ( the name '@' is implied )
  • ;
  • IN NS kazoo2.basis.com.
  • IN NS dino.basis.com.
  • IN MX 0 mail.basis.com.
  • ;
  • ; Address for canonical names on external network
  • ;
  • ;basis IN A 204.52.207.1
  • ;elroy IN A 204.52.207.4
  • ; Address for canonical names on internal network
  • ;
  • ;basis.com. IN A 192.168.1.140
  • abu IN A 192.168.1.147
  • addon IN A 192.168.1.52
  • addon2 IN A 192.168.1.91
db.basis file
db 192 168 1 file

Address to Name Mapping for Basis.Com

  • kazoo2:/usr/lib/named$ more db.192.168.1
  • ;
  • ; Address-to=Name mapping for basis.com.
  • ;
  • ; The origin "1.168.192.in-addr.arpa" is added to all names not ending with a dot.
  • ;
  • @ IN SOA kazoo2.basis.com. root.kazoo2.basis.com. (
  • 434 ; Serial
  • 10800 ; Refresh after 3 hours
  • 3600 ; Retry after 1 hour
  • 604800 ; Expire after 1 week
  • 86400 ) ; Minimum TTL of 1 day
  • ;
  • ; Name servers ( the name '@' is implied )
  • ;
  • IN NS kazoo2.basis.com.
  • IN NS dino.basis.com.
  • Addresses point to canonical names
  • ;
  • 1 IN PTR portsvr.basis.com.
  • 2 IN PTR ernestine.basis.com.
  • 3 IN PTR pristine.basis.com.
  • 4 IN PTR basis.basis.com.
db.192.168.1 file
combining approaches dns hosts files
Combining ApproachesDNS & HOSTS Files
  • Some Systems Allow the Sysadmin to Use DNS and HOSTS
  • Files, and You Can Then Specify the Order in Which They Are
  • Consulted.
  • Depending Upon the Unix Flavor an Entry Would Be Made in
  • Hosts.Conf or Resolv.Conf File
  • A Typical Entry Would Be: Order Hosts, bind
  • With This Entry, the HOSTS File Is Parsed First, If No Entry Is
  • Found, Then the DNS Server Is Consulted.
unix client configuration for dns
(UNIX) CLIENT CONFIGURATION FOR DNS

RESOLV.CONF FILE IDENTIFIES THE

DOMAIN AND THE DNS SERVERS

$ cd /etc/

$ more resolv.conf

domain basis.com

nameserver 192.168.1.21 # kazzoo2

nameserver 192.168.1.140 # dino

windows nt server 4 0

DOMAIN NAME SERVER

(DNS)

Note: DNS Is a Little to Complex for Our Discussion Here. DNS Should Only Be Done By a Qualified Network System Administrator.

We Will However, Briefly Review the Topic.

WINDOWS NT SERVER 4.0

windows nt uses a dns manager to configure the dns server
WINDOWS NT USES A DNS MANAGER TO CONFIGURE THE DNS SERVER
  • To Install It, Select The Services Tab In The Network Control Panel
  • You Can Then Access The DNS Manager From The Administrative Tools Menu
  • You Must First Add The DNS Server’s IP Address With The ‘New Server’ Command In The DNS Menu
configuring the dns server
CONFIGURING THE DNS SERVER
  • The Configuration Will Consist Of Zones Or DNS Databases
  • You Will Then Create A New Zone And Choose ‘Primary’ As Zone Type
  • Next You Would Create Domain Entries, Hostnames And Resource Records Under The Primary Zone
  • If You Are Using Multiple DNS Servers, You Would Create Secondary Zones To Be Used For Redundancy Between DNS Servers
dns configuration for the client
DNS CONFIGURATION FOR THE CLIENT
  • First Select The Protocol Tabs In The Network Control Panel
  • Highlight TCPIP, Select Properties, And Select The DNS Tab. Here You Specify The Client Hostname, Domain, DNS Server IP Address And Search Order, If More Than One
the dns database
THE DNS DATABASE
  • The DNS Server Stores It’s Information In Simple ASCII Database Files
  • Each DNS File Includes An SOA (Start Of Authority) Record, Specifying Administrative Information For The Zone
  • Followed By A Number Of Records Describing The Hosts And Other Entries In The Zone
dns and wins can work together
DNS AND WINS CAN WORK TOGETHER
  • If DNS Is Unavailable It Can Optionally Access A WINS Server To Resolve The Name As A Netbios Name
  • To Do This, Select Properties In The DNS Menu In The DNS Manager
  • Select The WINS Lookup Tab, And Select ‘Use Wins Resolution’ Option
  • Add At Least One WINS Server To The List
netbios hostname resolution
NETBIOS HOSTNAME RESOLUTION
  • WINS Server
  • B-node Broadcast
  • Lmhosts Files
windows internet name service wins
WINDOWS INTERNET NAMESERVICE (WINS)
  • Microsoft's Implementation Of NetBios Name Service(NBNS), Which Avoids Heavy B-node Broadcasts
  • WINS Uses H-node Broadcasting By Default: Netbios Apps/services First Query Wins For Netbios Names, The WINS Server Replies With A Positive Response, If The Name Is Registered
  • If WINS Is Not Available, Then Netbios Names Are Resolved By A B-node Broadcast
installing wins
INSTALLING WINS
  • WINS Is Installed From The Network Control Panel. Select Services Tab And Then Select ’Add’& Choose Wins
  • WINS Manager Is In Administrative Tools Menu
  • To Configure, Launch The WINS Manager And Select Configuration From The Menu
  • WINS Can Cross Routers. Also, At Least One WINS Server Is Recommended Per 5000 Clients
configuring wins
CONFIGURING WINS
  • Windows NT And Windows 95/98 Can Select Both A Primary & Secondary WINS Server In TCP/IP Properties
  • Any Windows NT Server Can Act As A WINS Server. WINS Clients Access Servers Strictly By IP Address, So WINS Like DNS Servers Must Have Dedicated IP Addresses (Or Reserved IP Addresses If Using DHCP)
b node broadcasting
B-NODE BROADCASTING

If Hosts Files And DNS Servers Fail To Resolve The Hostname To An IP Address, Then Netbios Name Resolution Begins. The Node Sends A Netbios Name Query To The Entire Local Subnet.

If A Machine Finds A Match, It Sends A Reply To The Original Node And A Netbios Session Is Established.

lmhosts files windows only
LMHOSTS FILES (WINDOWS ONLY)
  • Lmhosts Files Are Searched If A Negative Response Is Received Rom A B-node Broadcast Or From WINS
  • Windows NT The File Is Located In

\Winnt\system32\drivers\etc\

  • Windows 95/98 The File Is Located In

\Windows\ Directory

  • Similar To Hosts File And Is Also A Standard ASCII File
lmhosts uses ip address and netbios names
LMHOSTS USES IP ADDRESSAND NETBIOS NAMES
  • HERE IS A SAMPLE

168.192.150.1 SYSTEM1

168.192.150.2 SYSTEM2 #PRE #SEE BELOW

168.192.150.10 ORION #DOM: BASIS

  • #Note: #Pre Determines Which Entries That Should Be Preloaded Into Cache
  • #Dom Facilitates Domain Activity Such As User Login Validations Over A Router, Account Synchronization And Browsing
using tcp ip utilities for information troubleshooting
Using TCP/IP UTILITIES For Information & Troubleshooting
  • Ping
  • Hostname
  • Nslookup
  • Netstat
  • Ifconfig
  • Ipconfig
  • Trace Route
hostname utility
HOSTNAME UTILITY
  • You Can Type Hostname At The Unix Or DOS Prompt And This Will Return The Netbios (Computer Name) Assigned To That System
  • We Commonly Use This When We Configure The Basis License Manager
  • Example: Microsoft Windows NT

(C) Copyright 1985-1996 Microsoft Corp.

C:\>hostname

server

ping a diagnostic utility
PING A DIAGNOSTIC UTILITY
  • Sends An Echo Request ICMP Packet To A Remote Node And Waits For A Response
  • Used To Troubleshoot Network Connectivity
  • Test Hostname Resolution By Pinging Hostnames From Server To Client And Client To Server
ping example
PING EXAMPLE

C:\>ping server

Pinging server.basis.com [192.168.1.189] with 32 bytes of data:

Reply from 192.168.1.189: bytes=32 time<10ms TTL=128

Reply from 192.168.1.189: bytes=32 time<10ms TTL=128

Reply from 192.168.1.189: bytes=32 time<10ms TTL=128

troubleshooting dns with nslookup
TROUBLESHOOTING DNS WITH NSLOOKUP
  • A Diagnostic Utility For DNS That Allows You To Display Resource Records On The DNS Server
  • You Can Use Nslookup With Windows Or Unix DNS Implentation
  • From A DOS Or Unix Prompt Type
  • Nslookup Hostx
  • WHERE Hostx Is A Host In Your Domain
  • This Will Return The IP Address As Stored In The DNS Database
nslookup utility unix or windows
NSLOOKUP UTILITY (UNIX or WINDOWS)

$ nslookup leghorn

Name Server: kazoo2.basis.com

Address: 192.168.1.21

Name: leghorn.basis.com

Address: 192.168.1.150

netstat command for unix
NETSTAT COMMAND FOR UNIX

$ netstat -f inet -a

This output returns information on what ports have connections and who the connections are from, as well as the status of the connections, i.e. ESTABLISHED, TIME_WAIT, or LISTEN.

netstat utility

$ netstat

Active Internet connections

Proto Recv-Q Send-Q Local Address Foreign Address (state)

tcp 0 0 leghorn.1113 kazoo2.domain TIME_WAIT

tcp 0 105 leghorn.telnet ozy.3072 ESTABLISHED

tcp 0 0 leghorn.netbios- bugsbunny.1074 ESTABLISHED

tcp 147 0 leghorn.1111 heckle.26916 ESTABLISHED

tcp 0 0 leghorn.1109 kazoo2.1300 ESTABLISHED

tcp 147 0 leghorn.1108 heckle.26916 ESTABLISHED

NETSTAT UTILITY
ifconfig unix
IFCONFIG (UNIX)

$/etc/ifconfig -a

This information will tell what network cards are UP, BROADCASTING, and RUNNING along with the IP Address and mac address.

ipconfig utility windows

C:\>ipconfig /all

Windows NT IP Configuration

Host Name . . . . . . . . . : ozy.basis.com

DNS Servers . . . . . . . . : 192.168.1.21

192.168.1.140

Node Type . . . . . . . . . : Broadcast

NetBIOS Scope ID. . . . . . :

IP Routing Enabled. . . . . : No

WINS Proxy Enabled. . . . . : No

NetBIOS Resolution Uses DNS : No

Ethernet adapter El90x1:

Description . . . . . . . . : 3Com 3C90x Ethernet Adapter

Physical Address. . . . . . : 00-10-5A-00-30-DF

DHCP Enabled. . . . . . . . : No

IP Address. . . . . . . . . : 192.168.1.136

Subnet Mask . . . . . . . . : 255.255.255.0

IPCONFIG UTILITY (WINDOWS)

This can be useful when verifying a mac address of a network card

traceroute unix or tracert nt
TRACEROUTE (Unix) or TRACERT (NT)
  • This Utility Displays the Hosts (Servers or Routers) That Lie Between the Current Host and the Destination (Remote Host)
  • Useful for Troubleshooting Routing or Network Connectivity, i.e.. Slow Email Service.
sample of a traceroute command
Sample of a Traceroute Command
  • basis:~$ traceroute 205.189.200.27
  • traceroute to 205.189.200.27 (205.189.200.27), 30 hops max, 40 byte packets
  • 1 gw.basis.com (209.150.89.222) 2.218 ms 1.996 ms 3.899 ms
  • 2 209.150.88.105 (209.150.88.105) 25.458 ms 22.03 ms 17.476 ms
  • 3 sl-gw8-ana-9-0-T3.sprintlink.net (144.228.170.21) 109.54 ms 100.34 ms
  • 14 spc-tor-7-POS5-0-0.Sprint-Canada.Net (204.50.128.14) 235.993 ms
  • 18 spc-tor-7-5-0-0.descore.descore.com (205.189.200.27) 252.472 ms 239.776 ms
resources
Resources
  • Unix System Administration by O’Reilly
  • Windows NT Server Networking Guide

by MS Press

  • Windows NT Technical Support by MS Press
  • MCSE in a Nutshell by O’Reilly
  • MS TCP/IP Training Guide by MS Press
  • BASIS Sysadmin Group
  • TCP/IP by Parker
  • TCP/IP Websites: http://www.isi.edu/in-notes/iana/assignments/port-numbers

http://www.private.org.il/mini-faq.html

http://www.private.org.il/