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Planning Module 4 LIS 580: Spring, 2006 Instructor- Michael Crandall Roadmap Purpose of planning The planning process Setting objectives Building planning premises Developing plans Types of plans Planning pitfalls Purpose of Planning Because of changes in the environment

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planning

Planning

Module 4

LIS 580: Spring, 2006

Instructor- Michael Crandall

roadmap
Roadmap
  • Purpose of planning
  • The planning process
  • Setting objectives
  • Building planning premises
  • Developing plans
  • Types of plans
  • Planning pitfalls

LIS580- Spring 2006

purpose of planning
Purpose of Planning

Because of changes in the environment

Set the standards to facilitate control

Provide direction

Managers engage in planning to:

Minimize waste and redundancy

Reduce the impact of change

Prentice Hall, 2002

LIS580- Spring 2006

elements of planning
Elements Of Planning
  • Plan
    • A method for doing or making something, consisting of at least one goal and a predefined course of action for achieving that goal.
  • Goal
    • A specific result to be achieved; the end result of a plan.
  • Objectives
    • Specific results toward which effort is directed.

G.Dessler, 2003

LIS580- Spring 2006

elements of planning cont d
Elements Of Planning (cont’d)
  • Planning
    • The process of setting goals and courses of action, developing rules and procedures, and forecasting future outcomes.
  • What Planning Entails
    • Choosing goals and courses of action and deciding now what to do in the future to achieve those goals.
    • Assessing today the consequences of various future courses of action.

G.Dessler, 2003

LIS580- Spring 2006

what planning accomplishes
What Planning Accomplishes
  • Allows decisions to be made ahead of time.
  • Permits anticipation of consequences.
  • Provides direction and a sense of purpose.
  • Provides a unifying framework; avoiding piecemeal decision making.
  • Helps identify threats and opportunities and reduces risks.
  • Facilitates managerial control through the setting of standards for monitoring and measuring performance.

G.Dessler, 2003

LIS580- Spring 2006

the management planning process
The Management Planning Process
  • Hierarchy of Plans
    • A set of plans that includes the company-wide plan and the derivative plans of subsidiary units required to help achieve the enterprise-wide plan.
    • Top management approves a long-term plan; and each department creates its own budgets
  • The Planning Hierarchy
    • Top management formulates its plans based on upward feedback from the departments, and the departments in turn draft plans that make sense in terms of top management’s plan.

G.Dessler, 2003

LIS580- Spring 2006

hierarchy of goals
Hierarchy of Goals

FIGURE 4–1

G.Dessler, 2003

LIS580- Spring 2006

who does the planning
Who Does the Planning?
  • Small businesses:
    • Entrepreneurs do most of the planning.
  • Large firms:
    • Traditional:
      • A central corporate planning group works with top management and each division to solicit, challenge, and refine the company’s plan.
    • Current:
      • Planning is decentralized and includes the firms’ product and divisional managers, aided by small headquarters advisory groups.

G.Dessler, 2003

LIS580- Spring 2006

checklist 4 1 how to develop a plan
Checklist 4.1How to Develop a Plan
  • Set an objective.
  • Develop forecasts and planning premises.
  • Determine your options.
  • Evaluate alternatives.
  • Choose your plan, and start to implement it.
  • Go to Level 2.

}

The decision-

making process

G.Dessler, 2003

LIS580- Spring 2006

setting objectives
Setting Objectives

G.Dessler, 2003

LIS580- Spring 2006

checklist 4 2 principles of goal setting
Checklist 4.2 Principles of Goal-Setting
  • Set SMART goals—make them specific, measurable, attainable, relevant, and timely. Choose areas (sales revenue, costs, and so forth) that are relevant and complete.
  • Assign specific goals.
  • Assign measurable goals.
  • Assign doable but challenging goals.
  • Encourage participation.
  • Use executive assignment action plans, or management by objectives.

G.Dessler, 2003

LIS580- Spring 2006

forecasts and planning premises
Forecasts and Planning Premises
  • Forecasting is used to predict future requirements and opportunities
    • Determines the premises on which planning is based
    • Can be quantitative (e.g., a time series) or qualitative (e.g., jury of executive opinion)
  • Marketing research
  • Competitive intelligence
    • Helps build the picture of what others are doing to inform the planning process
  • Next step is the decision-making process we talked about yesterday
  • Finally, you begin to build your plans (usually more than one to realize objectives)

LIS580- Spring 2006

the business plan and its components
The Business Plan And Its Components
  • Description of the business (including ownership and products or services)
  • Marketing plan
  • Financial plan
  • Management

and/or personnel plan.

G.Dessler, 2003

LIS580- Spring 2006

outline of a marketing plan
Outline of a Marketing Plan

Source: Adapted from Philip Kotler and Gary Armstrong, Principles of Marketing (Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 2001), p. 70.

FIGURE 4–3

G.Dessler, 2003

LIS580- Spring 2006

acme s potential market segments
Acme’s Potential Market Segments

FIGURE 4–4

Source: Business Plan Pro, Palo Alto Software, Palo Alto, CA.

G.Dessler, 2003

LIS580- Spring 2006

product pricing and sales forecasts
Product, Pricing, and Sales Forecasts

FIGURE 4–5

Source: Business Plan Pro, Palo Alto Software, Palo Alto, CA.

G.Dessler, 2003

LIS580- Spring 2006

personnel plan
Personnel Plan

Source: Business Plan Pro, Palo Alto Software, Palo Alto, CA.

FIGURE 4–6

G.Dessler, 2003

LIS580- Spring 2006

sales forecast by service two month sales plan for acme consulting 2003
Sales Forecast by Service: Two-Month Sales Plan for Acme Consulting, 2003

FIGURE 4–7

G.Dessler, 2003

LIS580- Spring 2006

gantt scheduling chart for acme strategic report projects jan 1 15 2003
Gantt Scheduling Chart for Acme Strategic Report Projects, Jan 1–15, 2003

FIGURE 4–8

G.Dessler, 2003

LIS580- Spring 2006

acme consulting profit and loss
Acme Consulting Profit and Loss

Source: Business Plan Pro, Palo Alto Software, Palo Alto, CA.

FIGURE 4–9

G.Dessler, 2003

LIS580- Spring 2006

slide22

G.Dessler, 2003

LIS580- Spring 2006

slide23

G.Dessler, 2003

LIS580- Spring 2006

types of plans
Types of Plans

G Dessler, 2003

LIS580- Spring 2006

reporting improper behavior
Reporting Improper Behavior

Source: James Jenks, The Hiring, Firing (and everything in between) Personnel Forms Book (Ridgefield, CT: Round Lake Publishing, 1996), pp. 224–25.

FIGURE 4–10

G.Dessler, 2003

LIS580- Spring 2006

pitfalls of planning
Pitfalls of Planning
  • Planning may create rigidity
  • Plans cannot be developed for a dynamic environment
  • Formal plans cannot replace intuition and creativity
  • Planning focuses managers’ attention on today’s competition, not tomorrow’s survival
  • Formal planning reinforces success, which may lead to failure

Prentice Hall, 2002

LIS580- Spring 2006

elmer l anderson library
Elmer L. Anderson Library
  • What did the planners do right in this effort?
  • Was the design a result of research or creativity?
  • How was the planning process affected by stakeholder needs?
  • How much of the planning was related to political activities and how much to actual construction activity?
  • How was success measured for the project?

LIS580- Spring 2006

extreme chaos
Extreme Chaos
  • Better project success rates due to lower costs and smaller projects
  • Difficulty of estimating costs and schedules accurately
    • Often tripled up front to avoid failure
    • Old metrics not appropriate to modern methods
    • Difficult to establish benchmarks
  • Different skills for different roles

LIS580- Spring 2006

project success factors
Project Success Factors

LIS580- Spring 2006

next time
Next Time
  • Strategic planning
    • Read Chapter 5 and Cleveland Public Library Strategic Plan
  • Discussion questions:
    • How has the Gold Coast City Council been able to use evidence to aid in strategic planning?
    • Do you think their choice of benchmarks will achieve the overall objectives?
    • Are there any risks in using these measures in deciding on long-term changes in structure?
    • Do you think the library staff is engaged in this process? Should they be?

LIS580- Spring 2006