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Philosophies of Education. Chapter 3. Perennialism. Works, writings, findings, and truths that have stood the test of time Principles so central, so important to the development of a culture, that they cannot be ignored

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perennialism
Perennialism
  • Works, writings, findings, and truths that have stood the test of time
  • Principles so central, so important to the development of a culture, that they cannot be ignored
  • The universality of Truth, the importance of rationality…enduring principles exist in the physical world (both Idealists and Realists)
perennialism3
Perennialism
  • For learning to take place, must be a shared body of knowledge (Hirsch)
  • Core curriculum…literature, mathematics, science, languages, social sciences, the arts
  • Has intrinsic value, transmitted through the school, studied for its own sake
  • The student learns identity, values, the workings of the universe
perennialism4
Perennialism
  • Paramount to success of perennialist pedagogy, an informed and knowledgeable teacher with depth and breadth in the classics as well as the subject field s/he is teaching
  • Perennialists often labeled as humanists
essentialism
Essentialism
  • The Common Core for successful living, as defined by the “real world”
  • Content addresses today’s needs in society and the world of work
  • Accountability critical to the teaching/learning process
  • Competent teachers transmit the core curriculum of knowledge, skills, and attitudes through direct instruction and prescribed subject areas
essentialism6
Essentialism
  • Back to the Basics…transmit a critical mass of basic knowledge necessary for moral and literate citizenry
  • Sputnik (1957) and the call for restoration of an essential standard curriculum
  • World-class standards for curriculum in the global marketplace (1983-present)
behaviorism
Behaviorism
  • Human behavior can be shaped and changed leading to mastery learning
  • Realists who believe knowledge is derived from the natural world
  • Reward/punishment schedules to shape behavior
  • Tabula Rasa (Locke), the learned can learn to behave usefully
  • Nurture rather than Nature
romantic naturalism
Romantic Naturalism
  • Reflects the tone of the 19th century
  • Rousseau, Froebel, Peabody, Motessori drawing on Erasmus and Comenius…common sense, benevolent treatment of the learner, confidence in students’ good intentions and natural curiosity
  • Human condition is basically good, corruption due to outside influences
  • Rousseau…Emile
  • Froebel…Kindergarten
  • Montessori…structured, self-directed learning
progressivism
Progressivism
  • Rooted in Pragmatism
  • Education is Life itself, human experience defines reality
  • Knowledge is experiential, constructed through interaction
  • Education for democracy using science and the arts to produce enlightened citizen
  • The educated person is a problem solver who can criticize, analyze, evaluate, synthesize, formulate, and create
existentialism
Existentialism
  • Reality grows out of individual experience and one’s frame of reference
  • Kierkegaard, Buber, Sartre, Camus
  • Life is structured individually through one’s choices
  • True to oneself and others: authentic being
  • Authenticity orders a chaotic and absurd world
reconstructionism
Reconstructionism
  • Grew out of Progressivism
  • Sought systemic change of social conditions that would reconstruct society and fashion a new social order (Brameld)
  • Skeptical of the values and information imposed on learners by the prevailing culture (Counts)
  • Neo-Marxists, postmodernists, critical theorists, liberationists
  • Freire: Pedagogy of the Oppressed (conscientizacao)