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Networking Basics Comm 272: Digital Technologies Why bother networking? Networking Basics Networking – any method of connecting your PC to another computer system or common device. LAN, WAN, peer-to-peer File sharing (MP3, common data), applications, email, printing Online/LAN gaming

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networking basics

Networking Basics

Comm 272: Digital Technologies

why bother networking
Why bother networking?

Networking Basics

  • Networking – any method of connecting your PC to another computer system or common device.
  • LAN, WAN, peer-to-peer
  • File sharing (MP3, common data), applications, email, printing
  • Online/LAN gaming
basic hardware required for networking
Basic hardware required for networking

Networking Basics

  • Computer system or device with a network card
  • Network (Ethernet) cable
  • Wireless (later)
ip addresses
IP Addresses

Networking Basics

  • Internet Protocol Address
  • Made up of 4 groupings of numbers used to identify computers on a network or the internet.
  • Only certain groups of IP addresses can talk together, based on how equipment is configured.
  • IP Address is a unique identifier of a single device (computer, printer, etc) on a network
  • Can be static or dynamic
what s a subnet
What’s a Subnet?

Networking Basics

  • As mentioned, a network is a group of computers configured to communicate with each other.
  • A subnet allows for multiple groups within a network to be further refined.
  • A subnet allows for all Lab computers to be separated from Faculty computers, and all Student computers to be separated as well.
  • So why separate? Security, speed, manageability
what s a gateway
What’s a Gateway?

Networking Basics

  • The device that directs a device’s inbound and outbound traffic.
  • Represented by an IP address.
  • Can be any of several types of devices, but it must be on the same network as the device in question.
networking equipment
Networking Equipment

Networking Basics

  • Network Card
  • Network Cable
  • Hub
  • Switch
  • Router
  • Firewall
connection and transfer speeds explained
Connection and Transfer Speeds Explained

Networking Basics

  • Data speeds measured in kilobits per second (kbps) and megabits per second (mbps)
  • Modem speeds range from 14.4kbps to 28.8 to 33.6 to 56
  • ISDN (older digital dialup method) consists of paired channels of 64kbps lines, allowing for up to 128k transmit and receive.
  • Cable modem speeds, typically, range from 500k to 2.5mb
  • DSL speeds vary, based on the type of service desired. However, typical is between 256kbps and 1.5mbps.
connection and transfer speeds explained9
Connection and Transfer Speeds Explained

Networking Basics

  • LAN – Local area network speeds are based on the types of equipment used. Wired networks support speeds at 10Mb, 100Mb, and 1000Mb (1gb).
  • WAN – Wide area networks support whatever speeds are supported by Internet Service Providers, anywhere from dialup at 56K to OC192 at 9.95Gb.
wan connection and transfer speeds
WAN Connection and Transfer Speeds

Networking Basics

  • Dialup – 28.8 to 56k
  • ISDN – 64 to 128k
  • Cable – 500k to 2.5mb
  • DSL – 256k to 1.5mb
  • T1 – 1.54mb
  • T3 – 45mb
  • OC1 – 52mb
  • OC3 – 155mb
  • OC48 – 2.4gb
  • OC192 – 9.95gb
wan connection and transfer speeds11
WAN Connection and Transfer Speeds

Networking Basics

  • Dialup – 28.8k to 56k
  • ISDN – 64k to 128k
  • Cable – 500k to 2.5mb
  • DSL – 256k to 1.5mb
  • T1 – 1.54mb
  • T3 – 45mb
  • OC1 – 52mb
  • OC3 – 155mb
  • OC48 – 2.4gb
  • OC192 – 9.95gb
network equipment explained
Network Equipment Explained

Networking Basics

  • Network Card – the component that is attached to the computer, and allows a cable to be connected. Without a network card (or NIC, network interface card), a computer cannot be configured for networking, which includes an IP address, subnet, and gateway.
  • Network Cable – any type of cable (most commonly Ethernet), that connects to a device’s network port on one end, and to a networking device such as a hub or switch on the other end.
network equipment explained13
Network Equipment Explained

Networking Basics

  • Hub – a hub is a ‘dumb’ device that allows computers to connect to each other based on IP address.
      • A hub is a network device, but typically does not have an IP address.
      • A hub doesn’t think about what it receives. It simply forwards data on to all connected devices.
      • Slower, older technology.
      • Not good for high-traffic environments
      • Support speeds of 10mbps or 10/100mbps
network equipment explained14
Network Equipment Explained

Networking Basics

  • Switch – a switch is a ‘smarter’ device that allows computers to connect to each other based on IP addresses.
      • A switch is a network device, and oftentimes will have an IP address for management and configuration.
      • A switch processes everything it receives, and keeps a record of all devices connected to any of its ports.
      • A switch analyzes incoming traffic (known as packets), and sends that traffic to only the intended recipient device.
      • Switches are much faster, efficient, secure, and expensive
      • Support speeds of 10/100/1000mbps
network equipment explained15
Network Equipment Explained

Networking Basics

  • Router – a router is a device that connects networks to other networks, and allows these different network to talk to each other.
      • Built on ‘route tables’ of where other networks are connected
      • Internet is connected by routers
      • Essentially, connects a LAN to another network
network equipment explained16
Network Equipment Explained

Networking Basics

  • Firewall – a firewall is a device used for security purposes, to control what types of traffic are allowed into and out of a network.
      • Identifies services available on the inside of a protected network, and directs that traffic to the appropriate destination.
      • Directs web traffic to a web server, email traffic to an email server, etc.
      • Prevents any other access to other devices or services
      • Windows XP includes a basic personal firewall as part of the NIC configuration
vpn virtual private network
VPN – Virtual Private Network

Networking Basics

  • VPNs allow devices to connect to networks over secure ‘tunnels’
  • Allows a computer or network of computers to connect to a remote network as if it were physically connected.
  • VPNs operate over Internet connections
home networking
Home Networking

Networking Basics

  • Home networking is based on the same principles
  • A computer has an IP address and connects to a hub or switch
  • The hub or switch connects to a router
  • The router is connected to the Internet connection
  • Allows multiple computers to access each other, as well as share the same internet connection
  • Some home-networking routers have switch and firewall technology built in, for ease of setup, configuration, and use.
  • Very easy to configure, and most ISPs now support use of home networking.
wireless networking
Wireless Networking

Networking Basics

  • Built on the same principles of ‘wired’ networks, but the equipment used is different.
  • Wireless Routers, Access Points, and Wireless Network Cards
  • Protocol used is 802.11a/b/g – each has different properties
wireless networking22
Wireless Networking

Networking Basics

  • 802.11b details –
      • Most popular, cheapest
      • Up to 11Mbps transfer speed
      • Range of between 100 and 150 feet, assuming no obstacles
      • Public Hotspots (ie, Starbucks, etc) operate on 802.11b
wireless networking23
Wireless Networking

Networking Basics

  • 802.11a details –
      • Relatively new technology
      • Up to 54Mbps transfer speed
      • More costly
      • Shorter range, between 25-75 feet
      • No public hotspots at this time
      • Not compatible with other wireless protocols
wireless networking24
Wireless Networking

Networking Basics

  • 802.11g details –
      • Growing popularity, fairly inexpensive
      • Newest home wireless networking technology
      • Up to 54Mbps transfer speed
      • Range of between 100 and 150 feet
      • Compatible with 802.11b access points at 11Mbps speed
wireless networking25
Wireless Networking

Networking Basics

  • Different configuration requirements include Network name (SSID), Network Key, and WEP (if used) for security and access control.
  • http://www.linksys.com – for more info on wireless and home networking devices and options.
other thoughts
Other Thoughts…

Networking Basics

  • The Internet is really the interconnection of many individual networks
  • When you connect to a website, you’re connecting to a network in a different location.
other thoughts dns
Other Thoughts… DNS

Networking Basics

  • DNS – Domain Name Service associates an Internet domain name with an IP address.
      • You can connect to a website by a name (ie. www.vanguard.edu) or by an IP address (ie. http://66.161.76.168)
      • Email works the same way. Send an email to Brandon@vanguard.edu rather than Brandon@66.161.76.159
      • What if I change networks?
other thoughts dns28
Other Thoughts… DNS

Networking Basics

  • Wait! Why are those numbers different when they’re both vanguard.edu?
      • Because they’re set up to be different servers: www and mail. If they were the same server, they’d both be the same IP address.
      • www.vanguard.edu = 66.161.76.168
      • mail.vanguard.edu = 66.161.76.159
  • Domain name is a ‘friendly’, easy way to access a website.
other thoughts network authentication
Other Thoughts… Network Authentication

Networking Basics

  • Network Access and Authentication
      • Networks are groups of computers with access to shared, common resources.
      • These networks can operate in a peer-to-peer capacity using workgroups, or a Domain model for enhanced resource security and access control.
other thoughts network authentication30
Other Thoughts… Network Authentication

Networking Basics

  • Workgroup connections are based on local PC security configurations.
      • If you want access to my music, I need to give you a password to get into the folder where I keep them.
other thoughts network authentication31
Other Thoughts… Network Authentication

Networking Basics

  • A Domain is a group of computers and users with access to common shared resources, also a part of the domain, where access security is managed from a common location, a Domain Controller.
      • To get access to a domain resource, first you need a domain account. Then an administrator will assign your account access to specific resources.