Cell Structure & Function . LECTURE OUTLINE. DNA Replication . Protein Synthesis . Mutations . Simple Inheritance . Genetic Disorders . SIZE COMPARISONS. MUTATIONS. PHOSPHOLIPID MEMBRANE. Compartmentalization . Protection . Cell recognition . Entry/exit . Fluid mosaic . NUCLEUS.
Stores genes on chromosomes
Transport regulatory factors & gene products
Energy from glucose
Have their own DNA
Free-floating in cytoplasm
Bound to membranes
Larger in eukaryotes
Ribosome - ER - golgi
Thousands per cell
Large surface area
Cells w/secretory role
Right angle cylinders
Only expressed in individuals that have two copies of the relevant gene. More frequent with inbreeding, isolated
Autosomal Dominant Traits
Expressed even if only one copy of the gene is inherited. Effects sometimes show up later in life.
Associated with genes on the X chromosome.
Deletions, Duplications, Inversions, Translocations
Nondisjunction and Aneuploidy
Extra or missing chromosomes
Female carrier of an x-linked trait
Generations are numbered w/Roman numerals. Within each generation, individuals are numbered from oldest to youngest.
Approximately a 1:1 ratio of affected vs. unaffected progeny with one affected parent.
Transmission can occur from affected father to affected son.
Direct transmission from an affected parent to an affected child.
(Affected children always have an affected parent.)
Affected parents can have affected offspring.
However, affected children typically do not have affected parents.
Affected individuals can be either male or female.
Affected grand-father to grand-son thru carrier female.
Females do not manifest the disorder.
Dominant allele -- you have the disease or you don’t
1944 -- First experimental evidence that DNA transmits genetic information.
1953-- Using an x-ray pattern of DNA generated by Rosalind Franklin, Maurice Wilkins, James Watson and Francis Crick publish their double-helix model DNA.
1962-- Wilkins, Watson & Crick win Nobel Prize
1960-1966-- protein synthesis described
They decipher the genetic code that all living cells use to translate the series of bases in their DNA into instructions for the production of proteins.
1970 -- Hamilton Smith discovers the first restriction enzyme that cuts DNA at specific sites. Daniel Nathans & Werner Arber use restriction enzymes to generate the first physical map of a chromosome.
1977 -- working separately, each develop techniques for rapidly ‘spelling out”
long sections of
DNA by determining the sequence of bases.
Green Monkey 60
Owl Monkey 54
Squirrel Monkey 44
Ringtailed Lemur 56
Black Lemur 44
Fish odor syndrome
Mast cell leukemia
1/2500 live births