Introduction to Social - EmotionalDevelopment and Learning(SEDL) NYS Council of Education Associations May 2, 2008 Mark J. Barth, NYSED firstname.lastname@example.org rev. 3-12-09
New York’s Ratings New York, followed by Massachusetts and Maryland, received the highest grades overall. • An A in Standards, Assessment and Accountability • An A in Transitions and Alignment from preschool through higher education. Education Week Quality Counts January 10, 2008
ELA Grade 3-8 2006: 62% 2007: 63% 2008: 69% ELAGrade 8 2006: 49% 2007: 57% 2008: 56% Math Grade 3-8 2006: 66% 2007: 73% 2008: 81% MathGrade 8 2006: 54% 2007: 59% 2008: 70% Progress: Good But not Great in all Subgroups
Progress and Plateaus NAEP 8th Grade Writing NYS students proficient or above: 21% in 1998 30% in 2002 31% in 2007
The Achievement Gap “The biggest achievement gap is between what individual students CAN and Will do… • "The gap between actual achievement and potential on standardized measures — that's the gap that's most important to us," Eric Cooper National Urban Alliance
Emotion Attention Learning • Information-learning needs relationship • The quality and culture of environment matters. • Wars against risk behaviors have to be re-cast as pro-social development James Comer “Child and Adolescent Development: The Critical Missing Focus in School Reform” PDK June 2005
Risk factors that create“Barriers to Learning" • Poverty, Racism (disaggregate the performance data) • Exposure to violence or drug use • Absent or infirm parents • Behavioral and cognitive disabilities • Court-involved – juvenile justice • Foster care Failure to address multiple problems early on can lead to systems spillover. Schools are victim of systems spillover.
Achieving the Promise for New York’s Children and Families “…emphasizes prevention, early recognition and quality treatment.” “The (SED) commissioner shall, in cooperation with the commissioner of mental health,develop guidelines for voluntary implementation by school districts that incorporate social and emotional development into elementary and secondary school education programsprescribed in … the Children’s Mental Health Act of 2006.” Education Law Section 305 subdivision 35 P-16 Action Plan #11 “Reduce barriers to teaching and learning”
Current examples of school-based SEDL interventions • Positive Behavior Intervention & Supports (PBIS) • School-based health centers • School safety / violence reduction programs* • Response to Intervention RTI • Early intervention • Character education * “Only a small proportion of the violence in our society can be attributed to persons who are mentally ill.” Mulvey, 1994. Quoted by David Woodlock Deputy Commissioner OMH
Prevention and intervention continuum to promote healthy, adaptive, and pro-social behaviors Walker et al (1996) Tertiary Prevention: Specialized Individualized Systems for Students with High-Risk Behavior ~5% Secondary Prevention: Specialized Group Systems for Students with At-Risk Behavior ~15% Primary Prevention: School-/Classroom- Wide Systems for All Students, Staff, & Settings ~80% of Students
Turnaround for Children • Focus on the "Red Zone" in troubled schools where top two tiers may be10% acute 30% sub-acute diagnoses. • Regents Report November 2006: • One-fifth of NYC public school students have emotional disorders caused or exacerbated by environmental stressors; • They are expelled from elementary and middle school at four times the rate, and arrested while in school at 13 times the rate of children with all other disabilities. A student population in crisis can undermine teacher efficacy to a point where teachers have lost control of the instructional mission.
Mental Health in Schools: Current practice in school-based mental health: • Over emphasis on individual treatment to the detriment of prevention. • A focus on mental illness & treatment leads to: • Increasing demand on clinical services • Assigning diagnostic labels to commonplace behavioral, learning and emotional problems. • Consuming finite resources and a zero-sum game Adelman & Taylor, Fall 2007
Additional approaches to mental health in schools • Specialized clinical services • Classroom management / discipline practices • Pro-social agendas: • Positive Youth Development • Social & emotional learning SEL • Supportive learning environment SLE • Afterschool programs • Ameliorate, stop: • Bullying - Substance Abuse - Pregnancy - Dropping Out
Crisis Management vs. Prevention: Either / Or? • For 60% in troubled schools and 80% in typical schools: • focusing on hurt feelings (e.g., over being left out of a game), • managing jealousy (e.g., when a girlfriend talks to another guy), • negotiating minor conflicts (e.g., in cafeteria, playground, etc.). • Prevents escalation, • Equips youngsters/adolescents with life skills proves cost effective in the long run. • That is a tall order • especially if you agree that schools not stop with the little ones.
Mental Health in Schools:“Much more than services for a few” School systems need to address all three tiers: • Promote healthy development, prevent problems • Address problems as soon after onset as is feasible • Have a system for assisting those with chronic and severe problems. Adelman & Taylor, Fall 2007
The Big Picture: Public Health Outcomes Mark Greenberg, Prevention Research Center,Penn State University Undesired Outcomes Underlying Constraints Poor School Achievement Poor Mental Health Aggression/Violence Substance Use/Abuse Impulsive Action Emotion Dysregulation Insecure Relations
1. STOP and think. 2. Identify the PROBLEM. (collect lots of information) 3. Identify the FEELINGS. (your own and other peoples') 4. Decide on a GOAL. 5. Think of lots of SOLUTIONS. 6. Think about what MIGHT happen next. ER 7. Choose the BEST solution.(evaluate all the alternatives) 8. Make a PLAN. (think about possible obstacles) 9. TRY your plan. 10. SEE what happens. (evaluate the outcome) 11. TRY another plan or solution if your first one doesn't work. Problem-Solving Outline When you notice upset feelings:
The brain responds to environmental factors and produces experience-dependent changes in brain structure and function. The prefrontal cortex acts as a convergence zone for integration of affective and cognitive processes. Qualities such as patience, calmness, cooperation, and kindness are all regarded as skills that can be trained Richard J. Davidson, University of Wisconsin Waisman Center and Laboratory for Affective Neuroscience Importance of Neuroplasticity
Stroop Test • The mind automatically determines the semantic meaning of the word and then must override this first impression, a process which is not automatic. It strains the executive function of the brain. • It is used to investigate aspects of psychological disorders such as ADHD.
Key Resilience Factors Cognitive Abilities Self-Control / Emotion Regulation Relations with peers and adults Building protective factors promotes good mental health Schools are primary settings in which problems arise and can be prevented
What is Social and Emotional Development and Learning ? The process of acquiring the competencies to: • recognize and manage emotions • develop caring and concern for others • make responsible decisions • establish and maintain positive relationships • handle challenging situations effectively CASEL Collaborative for Academic, Social and Emotional Learning, U. Illinois Chicago
Academic Impact of SEL • 0.28 SEL effect size or academic performance • More impact than most academic interventions. • About the impact of a good literacy intervention. • NB: Daily aspirin prescription for heart attack prevention is based on 0.1 effect Roger Weissberg et al Meta Analysis (2008) Education Week Dec 19, 2007
Soft Skills? • From service industries to professional organizations businesses seek individuals with strong “communication skills, honesty and integrity, interpersonal skills, motivation and initiative, a strong work ethic, and teamwork skills, in that order” Rothstein, 2004, Class and Schools: Using Social, Economic, and Educational Reform to Close the Achievement Gap. Washington, DC
ThePartnership for 21st Century Skills #3. Learning and Thinking Skills.Students also “need to know how to keep learning - and make effective and innovative use of what they know - throughout their lives. Learning and Thinking Skills are comprised of: • Critical Thinking and Problem Solving Skills • Communication Skills • Creativity and Innovation Skills • Collaboration Skills • Information and Media Literacy Skills • Contextual Learning Skills http://www.21stcenturyskills.org/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=254&Itemid=120
Expectation for Teachers A flight or fight reaction is triggered by the brain’s responses to threat. When a student faces prolong and intense threat, thinking is impaired. Teachers and administrators who routinely face these behaviors receive little in the way of preparation.
Emotional Regulation Ability “Teachers with high emotional literacy… experience more positive emotions in the classroom, receive more support from co-workers, employ more effective coping strategies during stressful encounters, and report less burnout and greater job satisfaction.” Marc Brackett Emotional Literacy in the Classroom (2007), Yale University
The Child “To the doctor, the child is a typhoid patient; to the playground supervisor, a first baseman; to the teacher, a learner of arithmetic. At times, he may be different things to each of these specialists, but too rarely is he a whole child to any of them.” From the 1930 report of The White House Conference on Children and Youth