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Individual Competencies for Managing Diversity in the Workplace . Part 3. Learning Objectives. What are the developmental stages of “Cultural Competency”? What are the stages of Conflict Escalation & what are the managerial options for addressing conflict?

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learning objectives
Learning Objectives
  • What are the developmental stages of “Cultural Competency”?
  • What are the stages of Conflict Escalation & what are the managerial options for addressing conflict?
  • How is Cultural Competency applied in management and supervision?
  • How does Cultural Competency address stereotyping?
cultural competence is defined from a systems perspective
Cultural Competence is defined from a Systems Perspective
  • It is responsive to diversity at all levels of an organization and stakeholder groups: i.e., policy, governance, administrative, workforce, suppliers, and consumer/client.
  • Cultural competence is developmental, community focused.
  • Competency to Manage Culture and Diversity includes values, beliefs, and lifestyle behaviors that influence workplace behaviors, workplace policies, professional and systems competencies.
  • Competence to Manage Culture and Diversity applies skills that lead others to function effectively and provide quality services to diverse populations.
escalation of differences into conflict
Escalation of Differences into Conflict

Conflict / War

Hostility

Anger

Open Disagreement

Frustration

Heightened Tension

Irritation

Annoyance

Awareness of Differences

(Parker, p. 80)

when parties are faced with a conflict they may respond by

CONFLICT MANAGEMENT STYLES

When parties are faced with a conflict, they may respond by:

PASSIVE APPROACH

  • Avoidance (Inaction and Withdrawal)
  • Accommodation (Yielding)

ACTIVE APPROACH

  • Competition (Win-Lose)
  • Collaboration (Problem-Solve)
comparing collaborative and competitive strategies
Comparing Collaborative and Competitive Strategies

Factor Collaborative Competitive

Goal Mutual Gain Self Benefit

Resource View Expandable Fixed-Pie

Relationship Valued Unimportant

View of Other Partner Adversary

Communication Open Controlled

Trust High Limited

Power Shared Coveted

inter cultural competence is a developmental process bennett bennett in allard p 10
Inter-Cultural Competence is a Developmental Process. (Bennett & Bennett in Allard p.10)

Action

Understanding

6) Integration, Proficiency

5) Adaptation, Competency

4) Acceptance, Pre–competence

3) Minimization

2) Defensiveness

1) Denial & Destructiveness

Awareness

Inter-Cultural Competence Continuum

diversity competency model
Diversity Competency Model

COMPETENCY

Phase 1

Awareness

Phase 2

Understanding

Phase 3

Action Steps

~ ~ FEEDBACK ~ ~

Consequences of Action Brings New Awareness

Cox, Taylor, & Beale, R.L. Developing Competency to Manage Diversity. San Francisco, Berrett-Koehler, 1997.

diversity competency model9
Diversity Competency Model

Phase 1

Awareness

MOTIVATION to CHANGE

Recognition that diversity has effects on behavior and group outcomes.

Phase 2

Understanding

KNOWLEDGE of TYPE of CHANGE

Acquiring a deeper cognitive grasp of how & why diversity affects performance

Phase 3

Action Steps

CHANGING BEHAVIOR

Leading effort to alter behavior & performance in workgroup

FEEDBACK

REFLECTING ON RESULTS

Consequences of action brings new awareness.

diversity skills for managers
value diversity

be conscious of the"dynamics" when cultures interact

institutionalize cultural knowledge

adapt new actions reflecting an understanding of diversity between and within cultures.

Diversity Skills for Managers

One is “Competent” at Managing Diversity if (s)he is able to.

Awareness

Action

Understanding

  • identify organizational barriers that reduce individual equity and productivity.
  • identify exclusionary factors that inhibit group productivity & performance.

Feedback

  • demonstrate cultural self–assessment
applying the diversity competency model
Applying the Diversity Competency Model

Phase 1

Awareness

Phase 2

Understanding

Phase 3

Action Steps

Work, Tasks & Responsibilities

Feedback

Communication

COMPETENCY

Performance Evaluation & Feedback

Employee Development

Conflict Resolution

Team Decision-Making

Selection & Promotion

Delegation & Empowerment

perception stereotyping awareness pre competency stage

Example 1

Perception & Stereotyping(Awareness – Pre-Competency Stage)
  • Stereotyping is a mental process in which the individual is viewed as a member of a group; the information we ascribe to the group is also ascribed to the individual.
  • In developing an awareness of differences, there is a danger of reinforcing stereotyping.
difference between stereotyping and valuing diversity understanding competency stage
Frequently based on false assumptions, anecdotal evidence or impressions without direct experience with a group.

Assumes that group characteristics apply to every member.

Ascribes negative valence to traits of the group.

Is based on cultural differences verified by empirical research on actual intergroup differences.

Based on concept of “greater probability”

Ascribes neutral or positive valence to traits of the group

Difference between Stereotyping and Valuing Diversity(Understanding - Competency Stage)

Stereotyping

Valuing Diversity

5 principles of diversimilarity understanding competency stage
5 Principles of Diversimilarity(Understanding - Competency Stage)
  • Creativity and Adversity in Diversity
  • Conformity and Compatibility in Similarity
  • Diversity within Diversity
  • Similarity across Diversity
  • Managing Diversity by Managing Diversimilarity

Ofori-Dankwa & Julian, p.85-6.

steps to reduce stereotyping action proficiency stage

Example 1

Steps to Reduce Stereotyping(Action – Proficiency Stage)
  • Self-reflection; examine one’s assumptions
  • Formal education and training
  • Seek/check information from members of other identity group to distinguish real intergroup differences from folklore and myths
  • Request feedback from others about one’s use of stereotypes
  • Challenge other people’s assumptions and statements that involve generalizations.
modes of acculturation action proficiency stage
Modes of Acculturation(Action – Proficiency Stage)
  • Assimilation
  • Dominant Culture becomes the standard of behavior for other cultures.
  • Everyone conforms to Dominant norms/values.
  • Separation
  • Minority Culture unwilling/ unable to adapt to Dominant;
  • Seeks cultural & physical autonomy.
  • De-culturation
  • Dominant & Minority Culture not highly valued by members
  • Neither is influential in framing minority behavior.
  • Pluralism
  • Integration: a two-way process.
  • Both Cultures change to some degree and reflect the norms and values of the other.

Cox, Taylor, & Beale, R.L. Developing Competency to Manage Diversity. San Francisco, Berrett-Koehler, 1997, pp. 204-207.