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Flagellates. Old Taxonomy: PHYLUM SARCOMASTIGOPHORA SUBPHYLUM MASTIGOPHORA CLASS ZOOMASTIGOPHOREA New Taxonomy: Flagellates are placed in 5 PHYLA 2 groups of parasites:

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Flagellates

  • Old Taxonomy: PHYLUM SARCOMASTIGOPHORA SUBPHYLUM MASTIGOPHORA CLASS ZOOMASTIGOPHOREA

  • New Taxonomy: Flagellates are placed in 5 PHYLA

  • 2 groups of parasites:

    • intestinal and reproductive track flagellates (Chapter 6)

    • blood and tissue-dwelling flagellates (Chapter 5)


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General Flagellate Anatomy

  • Pellicle- Combination of plasma membrane and thin, translucent, secreted envelope.

  • This gives the flagellate a more defined shape, they are stiff but still flexible, therefore they have a fixed shape.


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General Flagellate Anatomy

  • Flagella- used for locomotion; present/not; how long are they, how many present.

  • Flagella arise from granules and may be free (unattached) or attached.


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General Flagellate Anatomy

}

  • Basal granule

  • Blepharoplast Where flagella

    arise from.

  • Kinetosome


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General Flagellate Anatomy

  • Undulating Membrane- Thin line of extending plasma membrane which flagellum attaches to before becoming a free flagellum.


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General Flagellate Anatomy

  • Axostyle- Tube like organelle, may or may not be present.

  • It arises from the kinetosome.



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General Flagellate Anatomy

  • Parabasal body- This is a Golgi Body located near the kinetosome, from which the parabasal filament runs to the kinetosome.

PB

PF


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General Flagellate Anatomy

  • Kinetoplast-A conspicuous part of a mitochondrion in some flagellates found near the kinetosome.


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General Flagellate Anatomy

  • Kinetoplast-A conspicuous part of a mitochondrion in some flagellates found near the kinetosome.


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Will Look at Intestinal and Reproductive Track Flagellates

  • Trichomonas vaginalis (pathogenic)- occurs in reproductive and urinary system of people.

  • Trichomonas tenax- endocommensal in mouth (tooth sockets).

  • Pentatrichomonas hominis- endocommensal in large intestine and cecum.


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Will Look at Intestinal and Reproductive Track Flagellates

  • Chilomastix mesnili (endocommensal)- lives in the large intestine.

  • Giardia duodenalis (pathogenic)- small intestine.


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General Biology

  • Absorption of organic material thru pellicle.

  • Some engage in pinocytosis.

  • T. tenax and T. vaginalis- Cytoplasm seem to be free of food vacuoles.

  • P. hominis- Have some food vacuoles in cytoplasm.

  • C. mesnili- Has an oral grove to sweep in food; has a cytostome.


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Merthiolate-Iodine-Formalin (MIF)

  • Widely used technique.

  • Reagents that serve to fix cysts, trophs, and even helminth eggs and aid in identification of parasites.



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Intestinal and Reproductive Track Flagellates of People

  • Not very significant because they are not very pathogenic or life threatening.


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Trichomonas vaginalis

  • Phylum Parabasalia: With parabasal fibers originating at kinetosomes; axostyle non-motile; up to thousands of flagella.


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Trichomonas vaginalis

  • Trophozite is the only stage present in the life cycle.

  • They are 7-32µm long by 5-12µm wide.


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Trichomonas vaginalis

  • It lives in the reproductive and urinary system of people.


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Trichomonas vaginalis

  • It lives in the reproductive and urinary system of people.

  • More specifically it is found in the vagina and urethra of women, and in the prostate, seminal vesicles, and urethra of men.


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Trichomonas vaginalis

  • It lives in the reproductive and urinary system of people.

  • More specifically it is found in the vagina and urethra of women, and in the prostate, seminal vesicles, and urethra of men.

  • It is more common in women, and hard to find in men because most are asymptomatic.


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Trichomonas vaginalis

  • It is cosmopolitan in distribution, however prevalence is not uniform because of sanitary and hygiene habits (depends on surroundings).

    • 20-40% in Women

    • 15% in Men


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Trichomonas vaginalis

  • It is pathogenic and causes Vaginitis.


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Trichomonas vaginalis

  • It is pathogenic and causes Vaginitis.


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Trichomonas vaginalis

  • It is pathogenic and causes Vaginitis.

  • Suffix means “inflamed” or “inflammation of “

  • So inflammation of the vagina.


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Trichomonas vaginalis

  • Also can be called Trichomoniasis.


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Trichomonas vaginalis

  • Also can be called Trichomoniasis


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Trichomonas vaginalis

  • Also can be called Trichomoniasis.

  • Emphasis on a organism.

  • Etiological agent organism that causes something.

Remember the parasite is not a disease. The disease is the consequence of the parasites pathology.


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Symptoms

  • Usually none.

  • Particularly in males. They don’t show symptoms.

  • In females it ranges from: chaffing, itching, frothing/clear/creamy discharge that is profuse from vagina (leukorrhea).


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Pathology

  • Eventually females get a disintegration of vaginal epithelial lining.


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Why is it Pathogenic in Females?

  • Natural flora (bacteria ) keep the pH of the vagina at 4-4.5 and ordinarily this discourages infections.


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Why is it Pathogenic in Females?

  • Natural flora (bacteria ) keep the pH of the vagina at 4-4.5 and ordinarily this discourages infections.

  • T. vaginalis can survive at a low pH.


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Why is it Pathogenic in Females?

  • Natural flora (bacteria ) keep the pH of the vagina at 4-4.5 and ordinarily this discourages infections.

  • T. vaginalis can survive at a low pH.

  • Once established it causes a shift toward alkalinity (pH 5-6) which further encourages its growth.


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Pathogenic?

  • There is a tendency to explain stillbirths, spontaneous abortions, morbidity to women who have vaginitis.

  • No real studies done on this so dealing with correlations.


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Trichomonas foetus

You are not responsible for this parasite!


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Trichomonas foetus

You are not responsible for this parasite!


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Trichomonas foetus

Initial vaginitis 2-3 wks invades uterus and attacks fetus about 7 wks gestation.

You are not responsible for this parasite!


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Trichomonas foetus

  • Transmitted to cows during coitus.

  • Most cows self-cure after developing immunity.

  • Bulls however are permanent carriers and sources of infection.

You are not responsible for this parasite!


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Trichomonas foetus

  • To check if a herd is infected with T. foetus, the most reliable way is to test bulls.

You are not responsible for this parasite!


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Trichomonas foetus

  • To check if a herd is infected with T. foetus, the most reliable way is to test bulls.

  • A sample is taken from the back areas of the penis and inner sheath by either scraping with a pipette (dry method) or flushing with sterile saline (wet method).

You are not responsible for this parasite!


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Trichomonas vaginalis Treatment

  • Flagyl- 3 times a day for 4-5 days.

  • Reinfection can happen almost immediately.

  • Vaginal smears to see if infected for diagnosis.

  • Prognosis full recovery (100%).


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Trichomonas vaginalis Epidemiology

  • Sexual contact.

  • Soiled clothing/linens; sharing of wash cloth, clothing, etc.

  • T. vaginalis can live in moist clothing for one day!


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Trichomonas vaginalis Epidemiology

  • Also seems to show up in small children: so probably not transmitted sexually.

  • The role of toilets? Feasible but no real evidence.


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Two other species of Trichomonas occur in humans

Pentatrichomonas hominis


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Trichomonas tenax

  • Habitat is in the mouth; sockets of teeth; gums.

  • Transmitted orally (kissing; sharing food eating or drinking utensils).

  • Associated with peridontal disease, mucous in mouth, but it does not cause this.

  • This is an opportunist  if conditions are right it is easier for it to infect.


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Trichomonas hominis = Pentatrichomonas hominis

  • Non-pathogenic; endocommensal.

  • Found in large intestine/cecum.

  • Ingestion of troph in contaminated water.

  • Features: Undulating membrane & free flagella.

  • Has 5 anterior flagella.


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Chilomastix mesnili

  • Non-pathogenic; endocommensal.

  • Trophs and cysts in the life cycle.

  • Lives in the cecum.

  • Divides by binary fission.

  • Water borne parasite  infected by contaminated water.


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P. hominis and C. mesnili

  • Even though they are not pathogenic and endocommensal, their presence indicates poor hygiene practices and sanitation.

  • Because of this need to be able to distinguish these from pathogenic organisms.


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Chilomastix mesnili

  • TROPHOZOITE - 6-24 µm long by 3-20 µm wide.

  • 4 flagella arise from kinetosomes at anterior end; 3 flagella extend anteriorly, 1 extends into the cytostome (flagella are difficult to see in stained trophozoites).


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Chilomastix mesnili

  • CYST is lemon-shaped; 6 to 10 µm in diameter.

  • Contains single nucleus, cytosome, and retracted flagella.