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FIRST AID TRAINING. KIRKWOOD COMMUNITY COLLEGE HEALTH SCIENCE. FIRST AID TRAINING. Power Point #1. LEARNING OUTCOME . the student should be able to identify their role in providing first aid. PURPOSE OF FIRST AID.

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  2. FIRSTAID TRAINING Power Point #1

  3. LEARNING OUTCOME • the student should be able to identify their role in providing first aid

  4. PURPOSE OF FIRST AID • provide temporary assistance in medical emergency situations until professional rescuers arrive and assumes responsibility for the victim

  5. LEGAL ASPECTS • Good Samaritan Lawminimizes the fear of legal consequences, but protects only those acting in good faith & without gross negligence or willful misconduct

  6. LEGAL ASPECTS • Do no further harm to the victim

  7. LEGAL RESPONSIBILITY • Legal responsibility varies from state to state as to who stops and renders first aid. Know your state law

  8. What is the state law of Iowa? • How would you find this information out? • Who can you call in you local community? • What is Iowa’s law? • * No legal responsibility in Iowa unless it is part of your job description

  9. LEGAL RESPONSIBILITY • once you render first aid to a victim, you have a “legal obligation” to continue until professional rescuers arrive • to discontinue would be considered abandonment

  10. MORAL OBLIGATION TO RENDER FIRST AID • When designated by employment • When a pre-existingresponsibility exists, examples: • parent/child • driver/passenger • student/teacher

  11. CONSENT FOR FIRST AID • Permission from a conscious victim is required to avoid assault charges and termed “consent” • Permission from an unconscious victim is not obtainable from the victim. Therefore, we assume the victim would want first aid. This action is termed “implied consent”

  12. TRIAGE • is the action of sorting victims of disaster in order to determine who needs immediate care and transportation to the hospital, or could be delayed • disaster: any situation that taxes emergency resources

  13. GET HELP!!!! • call 9-1-1 for professional rescuers • give your location • describe nature of emergency (fire, explosion, drowning, fall, motor vehicle accident, etc.) • tell them number of victims involved • describe seriousness of injuries • advise of hazardous material involvement

  14. TWO COMPONENTS OF VICTIM ASSESSMENT • Primary Observation: designed to identify any life threatening problems and stabilize them immediately • Secondary Observation: designed to detect obvious injuries or clues to illness and injury through a head-to-toe observation, gather history from victim or bystanders & inspectsurroundings


  16. AIRWAY • is it open & functional? If not, correct. Consider cause or mechanism of injury. (Use head-tilt, chin-lift if no injury; jaw-thrust maneuver if there is head/neck injury) • airway may be obstructed

  17. BREATHING • can victim speak? • look, is the chest rising and falling? • listen, do you hear air going in and out of airway? • feel, do you feel air touching your cheek?

  18. CIRCULATION • to determine a heartbeat. Is breathing, coughing or movement present? If NOT, assume no heartbeat and start CPR • control severe bleeds with pressure dressing immediately

  19. LEVEL OF CONSCIOUSNESS • is the victim oriented to person, place and time? • the brain requires a constant supply of oxygen from the heart to remain oriented • blood losses will affect oxygen supply and interfere with orientation • breathing disorders will decrease oxygen supply also interfering with orientation

  20. HISTORY OF EVENT • chief complaint. What hurts? • obtain history about the condition of the victim from victim, family, friends or bystanders. What happened? • find out events that lead to chief complaint. What were they doing? • note the ENVIRONMENT (drugs, alcohol, weapons, falls, motor vehicle accidents, surrounding temperature,etc.)

  21. VITAL SIGNSHEARTBEAT • is there breathing, coughing and movement? This would indicate the heart is beating when present • when absent, compressions of heart must begin to circulate blood to vital organs

  22. VITAL SIGNSBREATHING • is victim breathing or NOT? • is the breathing pattern fast, slow, deep, shallow, labored, noisy? • if NOT breathing, artificial breathing must be administered lungs

  23. ARTIFICIAL BREATHING • mouth to mouth ventilation or use other artificialbreathing assistive devices • artificial breathing for an adult should take place once every 5 seconds (20/minute)

  24. VITAL SIGNSTEMPERATURE • is skin hot, cold, warm? • a “hot” to the touch or “cold” to the touch body indicates abnormality

  25. VITAL SIGNSSkin/mucous membrane color • Pink? Adequate oxygen levels • White (pale)? Peripheral blood shunted to core of body to self protect major organs • Gray (ashen)? Indicates decreasing oxygenlevel in blood, body systems begin suffering • Blue (cyanotic)? Indicates excessive amount of blood not carrying oxygen, body systems in critical state • Red (flushed)? Harmful levels of carbon monoxide or increased carbon dioxide levels

  26. HEAD-TO-TOE OBSERVATION • must be consistent and deliberate each time performed • should be done for each victim when condition allows to make sure nothing is missed • may be omitted if the primary observation components airway, breathing and heartbeat are compromised

  27. HEAD & NECK • Observefor: • bleeding (open wounds) • deformities of facial structures (fractures) • c/o pain/numbness/tingling of extremities (possible neck injury) • pupil size and response to light (changes could indicate head injury) • mouth for missing/broken teeth or bleeding

  28. CHEST • Observe for: • equal rising and falling on both sides of chest during breathing • deformity of chest wall (indicating possible rib fractures) • bleeding, indicating open chest wound • complaint of chest pain from injury/disease • abnormal breathing patterns • coughing/bloody sputum

  29. ABDOMEN • Observe for: • hardness of abdomen indicates problem • bleeding, indicating open wound • complaints of pain • bruising, a SERIOUS indicator of injury • vomiting (save for professional personnel to observe for content & possible blood) • Abdominal cavity has body organs suspended within. There is great potential for blood loss if connecting tissue is torn

  30. PELVIS • Observe for: • obvious swelling (pelvic trauma has a potential to bleed profusely due to “big” blood vessels in the pelvic cavity) • obvious deformity, rotation, shortening of lower leg(s) may indicate hip fracture • complaints of pain • signs & symptoms of shock • bleeding, indicating open wound

  31. EXTREMITIES • Observe (arms & legs) for: • obvious deformity or visible bone, indicates possible fracture • shortening of one extremity to another, indicates possible fracture/dislocation • obvious bleeding indicates open wounds • complaint of marked tenderness/pain over injury site or falsemovement indicates possible fracture • complaint of loss of feeling below injury site, indicates nerve damage

  32. EXTREMITIES • Observe for “P-M-S”: • pink skin color and warm temperature below injury? • movement, is it present or absent below injury site? • sensation to touch, is it present or absent below injury site? • “PMS” checks must be done before & after splinting and bandaging extremity injuries

  33. SPINE • Observe for: • complaint of pain over spine strong indicator of spine injury • complaint of numbness, tingling, and/or inability to move strong indicator of spine injury • DO NOT MOVE VICTIM UNLESS IMMINENT DANGER IS PRESENT

  34. MEDICAL ALERT IDENTIFICATION • Check for: • bracelets, necklaces & other forms of medical alert ID’s that could provide valuable information for professional team about pre-existing health conditions

  35. HEAD-TO-TOE OBSERVATION • OMIT SECONDARY OBSERVATION WHEN: • patient is unable to maintain an open airway • patient is not breathing on their own • there is no heartbeat • your hands will be “full” doing CPR, and the secondary is not essential until later or never, depending on the circumstances

  36. Quizlet 1 • You neighbor is painting his house from a ladder. You hear him cry out and hear the ladder hit the cement. When you arrive you find him on his back, his right arm is deformed and he is not moving. • What is your assessment of the situation? • In what order would you manage this victim? • ABC • Airway • How do you determine he is breathing? • Breathing • Jaw thrust or chin thrust and why • Circulation • Where do you check for a pulse on an adult? • Call 911 • What should you do with his arm? • Straighten it out? • Leave it alone? • When can you leave the victim?


  38. FIRST AID TRAINING Power Point #2

  39. LEARNING OUTCOME • identify types of bleeding wounds and shock, and the appropriate first aid interventions

  40. WOUNDS & SHOCK • Average adult body contains 6 liters of blood (approximately 6 quarts) • rapid loss of 1 quart blood (1000cc) from adult can lead to shock and death • rapid loss of 1-cup blood (250 cc) from child can be deadly • rapid loss of 2-Tablespoons blood (30 cc) from infant can be deadly

  41. SHOCK • Definition: • inadequate tissue/cell perfusion causing body cells and systems to begin deathdue to a loss of body fluids and oxygen within the blood vessels

  42. TISSUE PERFUSION • Definition: • is the process of providing all living cells with a constant supply of oxygen and nutrients, and removing waste products from the cells • this process is essential for a healthy life

  43. CAUSES OF SHOCK • trauma - blood loss • illness - body fluid losses of vomit, diarrhea, fever (perspiration) • heart disease - causing blood flow disruptions & rhythm disturbances • gastrointestinal diseases - disrupt electrolyte balance and destroy cells, organs, & systems continued

  44. CAUSES OF SHOCK • respiratory disease - causing disruption of the oxygen supply to cells • allergic reactions - causing serious breathing spasms & vasodilatation • head injury - causing central nervoussystem inability to command properly • spine injury - may result in loss of ability for blood vessels to constrict causing (vasodilatation)

  45. MAJOR TYPES OF SHOCK • Hypovolemic (hemorrhagic) • Cardiogenic • Anaphylactic • Fainting

  46. HYPOVOLEMIC SHOCK Circulatory System • Causes: • blood loss • dehydration, other body fluid lossesdue to fever (sweating), vomiting, major burns, serious respiratory crises • diarrhea Full Fluid loss

  47. HYPOVOLEMIC SHOCKSigns & Symptoms • restlessness/irritability • altered level of consciousness • weak/rapid pulse • pale/moist skin • rapid breathing • nausea & vomiting • dull, sunken appearing eyes • big pupils • obvious injuries (bruising/bleeding)

  48. TREATMENT FORHYPOVOLEMIC SHOCK • manage A-B-C’s & call 9-1-1 • apply direct pressure to bleeds (barriers) • elevate part if bleeding continues • consider pulse pressure points if bleeding continues • add dressings don’t remove soaked ones • prevent body heat loss & chills • if not contraindicated, elevate legs 12”

  49. DO NOT ELEVATE LEGS WHEN: • the victim is unconscious or may have had a stroke (will increase pressure in the brain) • chest pain is present (will increase workload to heart) • there is a spine injury (may cause further injury) • breathing problems are present (will make this condition worse)

  50. CARDIOGENIC SHOCK • Causes: • heart pump failure that in turn reduces or starves the cells of oxygenated blood

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