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DESCRIPTIVE EPIDEMIOLOGY for Public Health Professionals Part 1. Ian R.H. Rockett, PhD, MPH Department of Community Medicine West Virginia University School of Medicine. Prepared under the auspices of the Southeast Public Health Training Center, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, 2005.

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descriptive epidemiology for public health professionals part 1

DESCRIPTIVE EPIDEMIOLOGYfor Public Health Professionals Part 1

Ian R.H. Rockett, PhD, MPH

Department of Community Medicine

West Virginia University School of Medicine

Prepared under the auspices of the Southeast Public Health Training Center, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, 2005.

[email protected]

learning objectives

Learning Objectives

To introduce some key historical contributors to the evolution of epidemiology

To present basic models of disease and injury

To address data sources, classification, and measurement

To build a bridge between descriptive and analytic epidemiology

performance objectives

Performance Objectives

To be sensitive to the history of epidemiology against the background of broad population change

To identify mortality and morbidity data sources

To calculate basic measures

To generate hypotheses from descriptive data

the big population picture

The Big Population Picture

Source: Joseph A. McFalls, Jr. Population: A Lively Introduction. Third edition. Population Bulletin 53(3); 1998: 38.

the demographic transition

The Demographic Transition

The demographic transition framework illustrates population growth in terms of discrepancies and changes in two crude vital rates – mortality and fertility (ignores the third component of growth, migration)

slide7
Source: Joseph A. McFalls, Jr. Population: A Lively Introduction. Third edition. Population Bulletin 53(3); 1998: 39.
slide10
Source: Ian R.H. Rockett. Population and Health: An Introduction to Epidemiology. Second edition. Population Bulletin 54(4); 1999: 9.
epidemiology

EPIDEMIOLOGY

epi – upon

demos– people

logos– study

The scientific study of the distribution and determinants of health-related states or events in specified populations, and the application of resulting knowledge to the prevention and control of health problems

epidemiology as a liberal art

Epidemiology as a Liberal Art

An accessible low-technology science, which incorporates the “scientific method, analogic thinking, deductive reasoning, problem solving within constraints, and concern for aesthetic values”

David Fraser, New England Journal of Medicine, 316(6); 1987:309-314.

hippocrates
Hippocrates

On Airs, Waters, and Places (5th century BCE)

enter john graunt 1629 1674
Enter John Graunt (1629-1674)
  • vocation – haberdasher (seller of men’s accessories)
  • avocation – father/founder of demography and epidemiology
graunt counted rather than considered major greenwood among his observations he noted
Graunt counted rather than considered (Major Greenwood)Among his observations, he noted:
  • regularity of biological phenomena in the mass
  • thatmore males are born than females and more males die than females (annually)
slide23
Partial Translation
  • Ague = Malaria
  • Purples & Spotted Feaver = Meningococcal Meningitis
  • King’s Evil = Tuberculosis of the lymph glands of the neck
slide24
Population Survivorship: Two Populations

th

17

century

2002

Age

United States

London, England

0

100

100

6

64

99

16

40

99

26

25

98

36

16

97

46 10

95

56

6

91

66

3

81

76

1

63

miasmatists vs contagionists

Miasmatists Vs Contagionists

miasm– pathogenic emanation dispersed in the atmosphere

(malaria – bad ‘air’)

contagion – vehicle of person-to- person disease transmission(forerunner of germ theory)

spot map of fatal cholera cases in london 1854
Spot Map of Fatal Cholera Cases in London, 1854

Source: Ian R.H. Rockett. Population and Health: An Introduction to Epidemiology. Second edition. Population Bulletin 54(4); 1999: 6.

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