Crane Safety on Construction SitesSupervision and Management of Crane OperationsStandards, Regulations, Certifications Presented by the Construction Institute of ASCE Funded by an OSHA Susan Harwood Training Grant
Disclaimers • This material was produced under grant SH-17794-08-60-F-51 from the Occupational Safety and Health Administration, U.S. Department of Labor. It does not necessarily reflect the views and policies of the U.S. Department of Labor, nor does mention of trade names, commercial products, or organizations imply endorsement by the U.S. Government. • This course is intended to provide general information to engineers and managers for use in identifying and addressing their responsibilities with respect to construction worksite safety. The program cannot possibly cover all safety issues that may be encountered at the construction worksite, and it is not a substitute for prudent judgment or professional expertise. It does not constitute legal advice. The information provided in this course should not be used without first securing competent advice with respect to its suitability for any general or specific application. ASCE and the Construction Institute disclaim all warranties regarding this course, whether implied, express or statutory, including without limitation, any implied warranty of merchantability, fitness for use, or fitness for a particular purpose. ASCE and the Construction Institute make no representation concerning the accuracy, completeness, suitability, or utility of any information, apparatus, method, product, or process discussed in this course and assume no liability therefore. Anyone utilizing the information provided in this course assumes all responsibility or liability arising from such use.
OSHA (New SubPart N in the works!) ASME INTERNATIONAL GOVERNMENTAL INDIVIDUAL ORGANIZATIONS OPERATOR CERTIFICATION AGENCIES STATES CITIES LEGAL REFERENCES Standards, Regulations, Licensing
Standards • American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) B 30.5 • American National Standards Institute (ANSI) • Power Crane and Shovel Association Standard No. 2 (PCSA)
B30.1 Jacks B30.2 Overhead and Gantry Cranes B30.3 Construction Tower Cranes B30.4 Portal, Tower, and Pedestal Cranes B30.5 Mobile and Locomotive Cranes B30.6 Derricks B30.7 Base Mounted Drum Hoists B30.8 Floating Cranes & Floating Derricks B30.9 Slings B30.10 Hooks B30.11 Monorails and Underhung Cranes B30.12 Loads Suspended From Rotorcraft B30.13 Storage/Retrieval (S/R) Machines B30.14 Side Boom Tractors ASME B.30 – Equipment Listing B30.16 Overhead Hoists (Underhung) B30.17 Overhead and Gantry Cranes B30.18 Stacker Cranes B30.19 Cableways B30.20 Below-the-Hook Lifting Devices B30.21 Manually Lever Operated Hoists B30.22 Articulating Boom Cranes B30.23 Personnel Lifting Systems B30.24 Container Cranes1 B30.25 Scrap and Material Handlers B30.26 Rigging Hardware1 B30.27 Material Placement Systems1 B30.28 Balance-Lifting Units1 1 B30.24, B30.26, B30.27 and B30.28 are in the developmental stage.
OSHA – General Duty Clause The General Duty Clause of the United States Occupational Safety and Health Act states: • 29 U.S.C. § 654, 5(a)1: Each employer shall furnish to each of his employees employment and a place of employment which are free from recognized hazards that are causing or are likely to cause death or serious physical harm to his employees. Each employee shall comply with occupational safety and health standards and all rules, regulations and orders issued pursuant to this Act which are applicable to his own actions and conduct.
OSHA Construction Requirements Key Requirements of Subpart N, 29 CFR 1926.550 • The employer shall comply with the manufacturer's specifications and limitations applicable to the operation of any and all cranes and derricks. Where manufacturer's specifications are not available, the limitations assigned to the equipment shall be based on the determinations of a qualified engineer competent in this field and such determinations will be appropriately documented and recorded. Attachments used with cranes shall not exceed the capacity, rating, or scope recommended by the manufacturer. (2) Rated load capacities, and recommended operating speeds, special hazard warnings, or instruction, shall be conspicuously posted on all equipment. Instructions or warnings shall be visible to the operator while he is at his control station. (5) The employer shall designate a competent person who shall inspect all machinery and equipment prior to each use, and during use, to make sure it is in safe operating condition. Any deficiencies shall be repaired, or defective parts replaced, before continued use. (6) A thorough, annual inspection of the hoisting machinery shall be made by a competent person, or by a government or private agency recognized by the U.S. Department of Labor. The employer shall maintain a record of the dates and results of inspections for each hoisting machine and piece of equipment.
OSHA – Construction Industry • Construction Industry (29 CFR 1926) • 1926 Subpart N, Cranes, derricks, hoists, elevators, and conveyors • 1926.550, Cranes and derricks • 1926.551, Helicopters • 1926.552, Material hoists, personnel hoists, and elevators • 1926.553, Base-mounted drum hoists • 1926.554, Overhead hoists • 1926.555, Conveyors • 1926.556, Aerial lifts
Crane and Derrick (CDAC) Proposed Regulations • The U.S. Department of Labor's Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) held a 4-day public hearing on the proposed regulations – March 17-20, 2009 • A copy of the proposed standard is available on OSHA's website at http://www.osha.gov/doc/proposedrule/Cranes_Derricks_Proposed_Rule.html • The cranes and derricks proposed rule would apply to the estimated 96,000 construction cranes in the U.S., including 2,000 tower cranes. The proposed standard addresses key safety issues associated with cranes, including: • ground conditions • the assembly and disassembly of cranes • the operation of cranes near power lines • the certification and training of crane operators • the use of safety devices and signals • and inspections of cranes • multipurpose machines (i.e. forklifts) when configured as a crane will fall under OSHA regulations.
Crane and Derrick (CDAC) Proposed Regulations • Significantly updates existing tower crane requirements and more comprehensively addresses tower crane safety, with respect both to erecting and dismantling, and to crane operations. • The proposed standard would establish four options for the qualification or certification of crane operators: • certification through an accredited third-party testing organization • qualification through an audited employer testing program • qualification issued by the U.S. military and • qualification by a state or local licensing authority.
Mobile Crane Inspection Guidelines • Cranes are designed for both general use and for specific purposes. Similar to the vast automobile industry, crane manufacturers produce similar models or types of cranes for the same purpose, often with different sizes of the same model of crane. Each type, model, or size of crane manufactured, may have different operating controls and require specialized operator training, individualized inspection criteria, and different preventive maintenance schedules.
International Standards • German DIN • CEN • FEM • England • Australia • EN
Governmental Standards • Naval Facilities Command (NAVFAC) • Department of Energy (DOE) • US Army Corps of Engineers (USACOE)
Corporate Standards • Petrochemical • Exxon • Conoco Phillips • Construction companies- • Bechtel • Fluor • Shaw • Zachary
Individual Entities • Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA)
Standards of Jurisdictions Most of the 24 states, Puerto Rico, and Virgin Islands that operate their own safety and health programs for private or public sector workers have adopted OSHA’s standards. Some have developed their own regulations concerning specific hazards in certain industries. For example, according to OSHA’s 2001 report on “state-plan” activities: • Oregon requires certification for operators of cranes that are five tons or more. • The [California] Division of Occupational Safety and Health (DOSH) inspects tower cranes ... twice a year. DOSH must be notified 24 hours in advance whenever a tower crane begins operation, is climbed or dismantled — and when a mobile tower crane begins operation. Subsequently, California required certification of crane operators and made other changes to its standard. • Hawaii, Nevada and New Mexico among others also are identified by OSHA in its 2001 report as being among state-plan states having their own crane regulations. Both Hawaii and New Mexico require that hoist machine operators be certified, for example.
Local Licensure of Crane Operators 16 states and 6 cities have licensing requirements for crane operators. Administrative procedures change periodically; please ensure you contact the appropriate authority to ensure you have the latest information.
Certifications • Crane Operators • National Council for the Certification of Crane Operators (NCCCO) • Crane Institute Certification (CIC) • Signalmen (NCCCO) • Riggers (NCCCO) • In-House Training
Signal Persons (proposed) Under proposed section 1926.1428, signal persons qualifications, the employer has two methods to ensure the competence of these individuals: (1) “the signal person would have documentation from a third party qualified evaluator showing that the evaluator had determined that the signal person meets the [section’s] requirements,” and (2) “an employer’s own qualified evaluator would have determined that a signal person meets the qualifications requirements.”
NCCCO Certification Overview National Commission for the Certification of Crane Operators • NCCCO currently administers certification programs for operators of mobile cranes, tower cranes and overhead cranes. • Complete description of the crane examinations and application process, and handbooks can be downloaded from the website http://www.nccco.org/. • To ensure CCO examinations are psychometrically sound, fair and effective measurements of a crane operator's knowledge and skills, NCCCO teams the expertise of its subject matter experts with one of the nation's leading professional credentialing organizations, International Assessment Institute (IAI).
NCCCO Certification Overview • NATIONAL COMMISSION FOR THE CERTIFICATION OF CRANE OPERATORS • NCCCO certification is designed to assure both industry and the general public that Operators are skilled and knowledgeable. • Features of the NCCCO program are that it is: • national in scope; • operated by the private sector; • independent of labor relations policies; • tailored to different types of cranes; • designed so certifications must be renewed every 5 years; • tested in three parts: medical, written, and practical; • accredited by nationally recognized professional credentialing authorities (NCCA and NSSB); • officially recognized by Federal OSHA.