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Conductivity Theory. Applied to Proper Hardware Selection. Conductivity Measurement. Used to Measure and Control the Percent Concentration of Acids, Bases and Salts in Solution Measures Total Concentration Not Ion Specific May be Used to Determine the Dominant Chemical. Electrolytes. Acids

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conductivity theory

Conductivity Theory

Applied to Proper Hardware Selection

File Name: Conductivity.ppt

conductivity measurement
Conductivity Measurement
  • Used to Measure and Control the Percent Concentration of Acids, Bases and Salts in Solution
  • Measures Total Concentration
  • Not Ion Specific
    • May be Used to Determine the Dominant Chemical

File Name: Conductivity.ppt

electrolytes
Electrolytes
  • Acids
    • Substances which ionize in solution and produce hydrogen ions, H+
    • Hydrochloric Acid (HCl) dissociates into H+ + Cl-
  • Bases
    • Substances which ionize in solution and produce hydroxide ions, OH-
    • Sodium Hydroxide, NaOH, dissociates into Na+ + OH-
  • Salts
    • Substances which ionize in solution and produce neither hydrogen or hydroxide ions
    • Sodium Chloride, NaCl, dissociates into Na+ + Cl-

File Name: Conductivity.ppt

typical conductivity values
Typical Conductivity Values

File Name: Conductivity.ppt

conductivity measurement5
Conductivity Measurement
  • Units of Measurement
    • U.S. Units = Micromhos/cm
    • International Units = MicroSiemens/cm
      • 1.0 S/cm = 1,000 mS/cm = 1,000,000 uS/cm
    • umho/cm = uS/cm
  • Conductivity is the Reciprocal of Resistance
    • 1.0 MicroSiemen/cm = 1,000,000 Ohms/-cm
    • 1,000,000 MicroSiemens/cm = 1.0 Ohm/-cm

File Name: Conductivity.ppt

conductivity measurement6
Conductivity Measurement
  • High Purity Water Applications
    • Power & Semiconductor Manufacturing
    • Conductivity Measured as Resistivity in MegOhms/cm
    • Pure Water = 18.18 Meg Ohms/-cm = 0.055 uS/cm
  • Water & Water Treatment Applications
    • Industrial Boilers & Cooling Towers
    • Conductivity Measured in Total Dissolved Solids (TDS)

File Name: Conductivity.ppt

conductivity measurement8
Conductivity Measurement
  • Each Acid, Base and Salt has Its Own Temperature Vs. Concentration Curve
  • The Temperature Slope Varies for Different Chemicals
    • Acids 1.0% - 1.6% /oC
    • Natural Waters 2.0%/oC
    • Bases > 1.8 - 2.2%/oC
    • High Purity Water 2.3% - 7.3%/ oC

File Name: Conductivity.ppt

specific conductivity of sulfuric acid
Specific Conductivity of Sulfuric Acid

File Name: Conductivity.ppt

5 0 sulfuric acid solution
5.0% Sulfuric Acid Solution

File Name: Conductivity.ppt

change in temperature slope o c
Change in Temperature Slope/oC

File Name: Conductivity.ppt

conductivity measurement12

Na+

Cl-

Conductivity Measurement
  • Apply an AC Voltage to Two Electrodes of Exact Dimensions
  • Acids, Bases and Salts (NaCl) Dissolve in Solution and Act as Current Carriers
  • The Current Flow is Directly Proportional to the Total Dissolved Solids in Solution
  • The Physical Dimensions of a Conductivity Electrode are Referred to as the Cell Constant
  • Cell Constant is Length/Area Relationship
    • Distance Between Plates = 1.0 cm
    • Area of Each Plate = 1.0 cm x 1.0 cm
    • Cell Constant = 1.0 cm-1
  • Cell Constant
    • Used to Determine the Measuring Range of the Analyzer
    • Acts as Multiplier
    • Used to Calibrate Analyzer
    • Determined Using NBS Standards
    • Can be NIST Traceable

File Name: Conductivity.ppt

four electrode conductivity cells

V

Four Electrode Conductivity Cells
  • Measures Current and Voltage Drop
  • Current Increases with an Increase in Voltage Drop Across Electrodes
  • Compensates for Minor Coatings on Conductivity Electrodes
  • Used for Higher Range Measurement

File Name: Conductivity.ppt

inductive conductivity
Inductive Conductivity
  • Also Known as Toroidal and Electrodless
  • Principle of Measurement
    • Two Sealed Wire Wound Coils Electrically Coupled by Solution Conductivity
  • Advantage
    • No Electrodes Exposed to the Measured Solution
    • Not Affected by Coating
  • Disadvantage
    • +- 10% Accuracy
    • High Range Measurement Only > 100 uS/cm

File Name: Conductivity.ppt

reverse osmosis unit
Reverse Osmosis Unit

pH Transmitter

Feed Water

Acid Feed

Feed

Water

Tank

Conductivity Transmitter

RO Unit

Waste

File Name: Conductivity.ppt

demineralizer unit
Demineralizer Unit

Caustic Regeneration

Acid Regeneration

Conductivity

Transmitter

Conductivity

Transmitter

Anion

Bed

Mixed

Bed

Cation

Bed

Conductivity

Transmitter

To Water Storage

Conductivity

Transmitter

Conductivity

Transmitter

File Name: Conductivity.ppt

power utilities average number of analyzers for each demin unit
TypeNumber

Conductivity 4

Concentration 2

pH 1

Total 7

Usually 2 per generation unit (make up & polisher) and built in pairs

Total X 4 = 28 Analyzers per Unit

Two Units Built at a time = 56 Analyzers

Power Utilities Average Number of Analyzers for Each Demin Unit

File Name: Conductivity.ppt

power utilities average number of analyzers per generating unit
Analyzer TypeNumber

pH 5

Specific Conductivity 6

Cation Conductivity 11

Condensate Analyzer 1

Total 23

Usually Units Built in Pairs = 46 Analyzers

Power Utilities Average Number of Analyzers Per Generating Unit

File Name: Conductivity.ppt

boiler blowdown and condensate return lines

Conductivity

Transmitter

Heat

Exchanger

Feed

Water

Tank

Condensate Return

Waste

Steam Header

Conductivity

Transmitter

Steam

Drum

Top Blowdown Line

Blowdown Valve

Mud

Drum

Flash

Tank

Manual Blowdown Valve

Do Not Automate !

Boiler Blowdown and Condensate Return Lines

File Name: Conductivity.ppt

clean in place cip
Clean in Place (CIP)

Conductivity

Transmitter

CIP Return Lines

Caustic

Process

Vessels

Caustic

Dilution

Tank

Solution

Recovery

Conductivity

Transmitter

Water

File Name: Conductivity.ppt