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COLORS (Dyes). Classified as Certified and Exempt from certification Certified dyes are snthetic Natural colors are those exempt from certification Where ever possible, natural colors are preferred for “clean” labeling. LISTING OF COLOR SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION (21CFR74).

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colors dyes
COLORS (Dyes)
  • Classified as Certified and Exempt from certification
    • Certified dyes are snthetic
    • Natural colors are those exempt from certification
    • Where ever possible, natural colors are preferred for “clean” labeling
listing of color subject to certification 21cfr74
LISTING OF COLOR SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION (21CFR74)

74.101 FD&C Blue No. 1.

74.102 FD&C Blue No. 2.

74.203 FD&C Green No. 3.

74.250 Orange B. Sausage casings only

74.302 Citrus Red No.2. Oranges only

74.303 FD&C Red No. 3.

74.340 FD&C Red No. 40.

74.705 FD&C Yellow No.5.

74.706 FD&C Yellow No.6.

certified provisionally listed colors and specifications 21cfr82
CERTIFIED PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS (21CFR82)

82.51 Lakes (FD&C).

82.101 FD&C Blue No. 1.

82.102 FD&C Blue No. 2.

82.203 FD&C Green No. 3.

82.304 FD&C Red No. 4. Cosmetic only

82.705 FD&C Yellow No. 5.

82.706 FD&C Yellow No. 6.

color additives exempt from certification 21cfr73
COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION (21CFR73)

73.30 Annatto extract.

73.35 Astaxanthin. added to the fish feed only as a component of a stabilized color additive mixture.

73.40 Dehydrated beets (beet powder).

73.50 Ultramarine blue. used for coloring salt intended for animal feed

73.75 Canthaxanthin.

73.85 Caramel.

73.90 b -Apo-8'-carotenal.

73.95 b-Carotene.

73.100 Cochineal extract; carmine.

color additives exempt from certification 21cfr735
COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION (21CFR73)

73.140 Toasted partially defatted cooked cottonseed flour.

73.160 Ferrous gluconate. coloring of ripe olives.

73.165 Ferrous lactate. coloring of ripe olives.

73.169 Grape color extract. Non-beverage foods

73.170 Grape skin extract (enocianina). still and carbonated drinks and ades, beverage bases, and alcoholic beverages

73.200 Synthetic iron oxide. Sausage casings, pet foods

73.250 Fruit juice.

73.260 Vegetable juice.

color additives exempt from certification 21cfr736
COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION (21CFR73)

73.275 Dried algae meal. enhance the yellow color of

chicken skin and eggs.

73.295 Tagetes (Aztec marigold) meal and extract. enhance the yellow color of chicken skin and eggs.

73.300 Carrot oil.

73.315 Corn endosperm oil.

73.340 Paprika.

73.345 Paprika oleoresin.

73.450 Riboflavin.

73.500 Saffron.

73.575 Titanium dioxide.

73.600 Turmeric.

73.615 Turmeric oleoresin.

slide7
Dyes
  • Soluble in water
  • Color by being dissolved
  • Generally good heat and light stability
  • Color proportional to concentration
advantages and disadvantages of various forms of certified color additives
Advantages And Disadvantages Of Various Forms Of Certified Color Additives

FormAdvantageDisadvantage

Primary Ease of dissolving, Dusty

suitable for dry mixes

Granular Dustless, free flowing Slower dissolving, not

suitable for dry mixes

Wet dry No flashing in dry More costly

blends blends when wetted

Aqueous Ready to use, More costly

liquid colors ease of handling,

accurate measurement

Cut blends Permits larger weighings More costly

with more accuracy for

small amounts of added

color

lakes
Lakes
  • Dyes are made insoluble by coating on alumina
  • Coloring strength not proportional to concentation
  • Used when you don’t want bleeding &
  • Used to color powders
  • Color by dispersion
  • Improved light and heat stability
  • Particle size has big effect on coloring power
average dye content of foods
Average Dye Content of Foods

Category (ppm)

Candy and confections 100

Beverages (liquid and powdered) 75

Dessert powders 140

Cereals 350

Marachino cherries 200

Pet foods 200

Bakery goods 50

Ice cream and sherbets 30

Sausage (surface) 125

Snack foods 200

chemical classification of dyes
Chemical Classification of Dyes

AZO Triphenylmethane Sulfonated IndigoFluorescein

Red #4 Blue #1 Blue #2 Red #3

Red. #40 Green #3    

Yellow #5      

Yellow #6

Orange B

chemical classification of dyes12
Chemical Classification of Dyes
  • AZO ‘s
    • Yellow 5 Yellow 6
chemical classification of dyes13
Chemical Classification of Dyes
  • AZO ‘s
    • Orange B Red 40
triphenylmethane
Triphenylmethane
  • Blue # 1 Green 3
azo dyes
AZO DYES

METAL IONS -

Losses due to Al, Zn, Fe, Sn

Color changes with copper

REDUCING AND OXIDIZING AGENTS -

Rapid losses

LIGHT -

Reduced stability

triphenylmethane dyes
Triphenylmethane Dyes

Light -

Fair stability

Acid

Some losses

Oxidation-

Poor stability

problem causes
PROBLEMCAUSES

Fading due to microorganisms Color preparing facilities not thoroughly cleaned to avoid contaminating with reducing organisms.

Fading due to excessive heat Processing temperature too high.

Fading due to oxidizing and reducing Contact of color with oxidizers such as agents ozone or hypochlorites or reducers such as ascorbic acid.

Fading due to strong acids or alkalis  

Fading due to retorting with protein material  

Poor shelf life with colored canned Used an excessive amount of azo carbonated beverages dyes

Precipitation from color solution Exceeded solubility limit or colored liquid food Insufficient solvent. Chemical reaction. Low temperatures, especially for concentrated color solution.

problems causes
Problems Causes

Dulling effects instead of bright, Excessive color.

pleasing shades Exposure to high temperatures

Specking and spotting during coloring Color not completely dissolved of bakery and confectionery products making a solution.

Employed liquid color containing sediment. Attempted dispersion in an containing excessive fat

Fading due to light Poor packaging

Fading due to metals Color solutions or colored products were in contact with zinc, tin, aluminum, etc. during dissolving, handling or storing.

caramel color
Caramel Color

Produced from heat treatment of:

SugarsAlkaliAcidsSalts

Glucose Ammonium hydroxide. Acetic acid. Ammonium, sodium, Fructose Calcium hydroxide Citric acid potassium carbonate, Lactose Potassium hydroxide. Phosphoric acid bicarbonate

Malt Syrup Sodium hydroxide. Sulfuric acid.. Phosphate (including Molasses   Sulfurous acid dibasic phosphate and Starch Hydrolysates    monobasic phosphate),  

caramel color22
Caramel Color

Complex colloid with a charge

Must carry a strong negative charge to remain soluble

TypesUses

Acid proof (pka 2.0) Carbonated beverages

Bakers and confectioners Baked products

Dry caramel Dry mixes

http://www.caramel.com/

carotenoids
Carotenoids

Fat souble synthetically produced natural pigments. Colors range from yellow to red. Sensitive to oxygen (note the conjugated double bonds). Isomerized during heat processing.

b -CAROTENE (0.6 ug = 1IU)

b -APO-8’- CAROTENAL (0.83 ug = 1IU)

CANTHAXINTHIN (No Vit A activity)

BIXIN (ANNATTO EXTRACT) (No Vit A activity)

LYCOPENE (No Vit A activity) Used in Europe but not yet approved in the US

commercial forms of carotenioids available
Commercial Forms of Carotenioids Available:
  • Liquid suspension in vegetable oil
  • Semi-solid suspension -25% in hydro  genated vegetable oil
  • Beadlet-water dispersible
  • Emulsion, beverage type
commercial forms of carotenioids available26
Commercial Forms of Carotenioids Available:
  • STABILITY
  • Crystalline B-carotene is sensitive to air and light.
  • Vegetable fat and oil solutions and suspensions are quite stable during customary handling.
suggested use levels of carotenoids to obtain certain colors
SUGGESTED USE LEVELS OF CAROTENOIDS TO OBTAIN CERTAIN COLORS

COLOR CANTHAXANTHIN APOCAROTENAL B-CAROTENE

YELLOW 2.5   2

ORANGE 5 2 5

ORANGE-RED 10 8 *

STRAWBERRY 12 10 *

RASPBERRY 15 12 *

CHERRY 25 15 *

* DOES NOT GIVE RED COLOR

mg/pt

some carotenoid applications
Some Carotenoid Applications

Food ProductCarotenoidComments

Simulated dairy

products b-carotene beadlets Provides color and Vit A

Meat And Simulated

Meat Products 10% Canthaxanthin beadlets Enhances Color

Tomato Products 10% Canthaxanthin beadlets Restore Color

Frozen And Dried

Egg Yolk Products b -carotene suspensions, Improves color of foods

beadlets made from these products

Juices & beverages b -carotene Beadlets Yellow color, adds Vit A

Frostings b -carotene Beadlets Lighter colors like lemon, peach

some carotenoid applications29
Some Carotenoid Applications

Food ProductCarotenoidComments

Margarine b -carotene suspensions Uniform color, Vit A

Butter b -carotene Suspensions Standard color,Vit A

Cheese Annatto Color only, No Vit A

Popcorn b -carotene Suspensions Uniform color

Process Cheese b -carotene Suspensions Uniform color ,Vit A

Bakery Products b -carotene Beadlets

Canthaxanthin Beadlets Yellow Color

annatto bixin
Annatto (Bixin)
  • Carotenoid
  • Plant pigment permitted for coloring cheese (Cheddar)
  • Stable to oxidations
  • Unstable to heat and light
betalins
Betalins

Dried beet juice 0.2-1.0% betanin

Betanin useful at ~ 50 ppm

Betanin has 2.5 times coloring strength cf red #2

Most stable between ph 4.0-5.0

Heat, oxygen and light labile

Most often in sauces (frozen pizza sauces), dried products, some yogurts

meat pigments
MEAT PIGMENTS

PIGMENTCOLORIRONGLOBIN

Myoglobin Purple-red +2 N

Oxymyoglobin Bright red +2 N

Metmyoglobin Brown +3 N

Nitrosomyoglobin Pink +2 N

Metmyoglobin nitrite Pink +3 N

Green colors -sulfmyoglobin (H2S)

Choleglobin (ascorbate, reducing agents)

chlorophyll
Chlorophyll

Pyrrole ring with chelated Mg++

Phytol ester

Most of the chemistry relates to removal of Mg and replacement with H+, Cu++ or Zn++

Veri-Green process adds ZnCl2 to replace H in pheophytin to form very bright and stable green color, copper will also form a very nice color (but adding copper is not allowed in the US)

Phytol ester may also be cleaved.

Chlorophyll minus phytol = chlorophyllide (green)

Replace Mg with H = Pheophytin (olive)

-phytol and Mg=pheophorbide(Qlive)

anthocyanins
Anthocyanins

pH indicators

Heat labile

Oxygen labile

Enzyme labile

Stability is a major limitation for use. Once you remove it from the plant tissue stability is a big problem. Red cabbage "juice" has been used in barbecue sauce and coloring pink lemonade.