COLORS (Dyes). Classified as Certified and Exempt from certification Certified dyes are snthetic Natural colors are those exempt from certification Where ever possible, natural colors are preferred for “clean” labeling. LISTING OF COLOR SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION (21CFR74).
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74.101 FD&C Blue No. 1.
74.102 FD&C Blue No. 2.
74.203 FD&C Green No. 3.
74.250 Orange B. Sausage casings only
74.302 Citrus Red No.2. Oranges only
74.303 FD&C Red No. 3.
74.340 FD&C Red No. 40.
74.705 FD&C Yellow No.5.
74.706 FD&C Yellow No.6.
82.51 Lakes (FD&C).
82.101 FD&C Blue No. 1.
82.102 FD&C Blue No. 2.
82.203 FD&C Green No. 3.
82.304 FD&C Red No. 4. Cosmetic only
82.705 FD&C Yellow No. 5.
82.706 FD&C Yellow No. 6.
73.30 Annatto extract.
73.35 Astaxanthin. added to the fish feed only as a component of a stabilized color additive mixture.
73.40 Dehydrated beets (beet powder).
73.50 Ultramarine blue. used for coloring salt intended for animal feed
73.90 b -Apo-8'-carotenal.
73.100 Cochineal extract; carmine.
73.140 Toasted partially defatted cooked cottonseed flour.
73.160 Ferrous gluconate. coloring of ripe olives.
73.165 Ferrous lactate. coloring of ripe olives.
73.169 Grape color extract. Non-beverage foods
73.170 Grape skin extract (enocianina). still and carbonated drinks and ades, beverage bases, and alcoholic beverages
73.200 Synthetic iron oxide. Sausage casings, pet foods
73.250 Fruit juice.
73.260 Vegetable juice.
73.275 Dried algae meal. enhance the yellow color of
chicken skin and eggs.
73.295 Tagetes (Aztec marigold) meal and extract. enhance the yellow color of chicken skin and eggs.
73.300 Carrot oil.
73.315 Corn endosperm oil.
73.345 Paprika oleoresin.
73.575 Titanium dioxide.
73.615 Turmeric oleoresin.
Primary Ease of dissolving, Dusty
suitable for dry mixes
Granular Dustless, free flowing Slower dissolving, not
suitable for dry mixes
Wet dry No flashing in dry More costly
blends blends when wetted
Aqueous Ready to use, More costly
liquid colors ease of handling,
Cut blends Permits larger weighings More costly
with more accuracy for
small amounts of added
Candy and confections 100
Beverages (liquid and powdered) 75
Dessert powders 140
Marachino cherries 200
Pet foods 200
Bakery goods 50
Ice cream and sherbets 30
Sausage (surface) 125
Snack foods 200
AZO Triphenylmethane Sulfonated IndigoFluorescein
Red #4 Blue #1 Blue #2 Red #3
Red. #40 Green #3
METAL IONS -
Losses due to Al, Zn, Fe, Sn
Color changes with copper
REDUCING AND OXIDIZING AGENTS -
Fading due to microorganisms Color preparing facilities not thoroughly cleaned to avoid contaminating with reducing organisms.
Fading due to excessive heat Processing temperature too high.
Fading due to oxidizing and reducing Contact of color with oxidizers such as agents ozone or hypochlorites or reducers such as ascorbic acid.
Fading due to strong acids or alkalis
Fading due to retorting with protein material
Poor shelf life with colored canned Used an excessive amount of azo carbonated beverages dyes
Precipitation from color solution Exceeded solubility limit or colored liquid food Insufficient solvent. Chemical reaction. Low temperatures, especially for concentrated color solution.
Dulling effects instead of bright, Excessive color.
pleasing shades Exposure to high temperatures
Specking and spotting during coloring Color not completely dissolved of bakery and confectionery products making a solution.
Employed liquid color containing sediment. Attempted dispersion in an containing excessive fat
Fading due to light Poor packaging
Fading due to metals Color solutions or colored products were in contact with zinc, tin, aluminum, etc. during dissolving, handling or storing.
Produced from heat treatment of:
Glucose Ammonium hydroxide. Acetic acid. Ammonium, sodium, Fructose Calcium hydroxide Citric acid potassium carbonate, Lactose Potassium hydroxide. Phosphoric acid bicarbonate
Malt Syrup Sodium hydroxide. Sulfuric acid.. Phosphate (including Molasses Sulfurous acid dibasic phosphate and Starch Hydrolysates monobasic phosphate),
Complex colloid with a charge
Must carry a strong negative charge to remain soluble
Acid proof (pka 2.0) Carbonated beverages
Bakers and confectioners Baked products
Dry caramel Dry mixes
Fat souble synthetically produced natural pigments. Colors range from yellow to red. Sensitive to oxygen (note the conjugated double bonds). Isomerized during heat processing.
b -CAROTENE (0.6 ug = 1IU)
b -APO-8’- CAROTENAL (0.83 ug = 1IU)
CANTHAXINTHIN (No Vit A activity)
BIXIN (ANNATTO EXTRACT) (No Vit A activity)
LYCOPENE (No Vit A activity) Used in Europe but not yet approved in the US
COLOR CANTHAXANTHIN APOCAROTENAL B-CAROTENE
YELLOW 2.5 2
ORANGE 5 2 5
ORANGE-RED 10 8 *
STRAWBERRY 12 10 *
RASPBERRY 15 12 *
CHERRY 25 15 *
* DOES NOT GIVE RED COLOR
products b-carotene beadlets Provides color and Vit A
Meat And Simulated
Meat Products 10% Canthaxanthin beadlets Enhances Color
Tomato Products 10% Canthaxanthin beadlets Restore Color
Frozen And Dried
Egg Yolk Products b -carotene suspensions, Improves color of foods
beadlets made from these products
Juices & beverages b -carotene Beadlets Yellow color, adds Vit A
Frostings b -carotene Beadlets Lighter colors like lemon, peach
Margarine b -carotene suspensions Uniform color, Vit A
Butter b -carotene Suspensions Standard color,Vit A
Cheese Annatto Color only, No Vit A
Popcorn b -carotene Suspensions Uniform color
Process Cheese b -carotene Suspensions Uniform color ,Vit A
Bakery Products b -carotene Beadlets
Canthaxanthin Beadlets Yellow Color
Dried beet juice 0.2-1.0% betanin
Betanin useful at ~ 50 ppm
Betanin has 2.5 times coloring strength cf red #2
Most stable between ph 4.0-5.0
Heat, oxygen and light labile
Most often in sauces (frozen pizza sauces), dried products, some yogurts
Myoglobin Purple-red +2 N
Oxymyoglobin Bright red +2 N
Metmyoglobin Brown +3 N
Nitrosomyoglobin Pink +2 N
Metmyoglobin nitrite Pink +3 N
Green colors -sulfmyoglobin (H2S)
Choleglobin (ascorbate, reducing agents)
Pyrrole ring with chelated Mg++
Most of the chemistry relates to removal of Mg and replacement with H+, Cu++ or Zn++
Veri-Green process adds ZnCl2 to replace H in pheophytin to form very bright and stable green color, copper will also form a very nice color (but adding copper is not allowed in the US)
Phytol ester may also be cleaved.
Chlorophyll minus phytol = chlorophyllide (green)
Replace Mg with H = Pheophytin (olive)
-phytol and Mg=pheophorbide(Qlive)
Stability is a major limitation for use. Once you remove it from the plant tissue stability is a big problem. Red cabbage "juice" has been used in barbecue sauce and coloring pink lemonade.