Career Theory Individual Perspectives. Career Development. Overview. Objective & Subjective Faces of ‘Career’ Objective careers & career patterns Subjective careers Career Stress Adjustment Theories of Career Development and Career Choice Developmental perspective (Super, 1957,1980)
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Career : ‘the sequence of employment-related positions, roles, activities and experiences as encountered by a person’ (Arnold et al, 1998; Greenhaus & Callanan, 1994)
‘Career’ is a metaphor for upward progression in a public, institutional sense.
‘Career’ represents the experiences of the individual - their personal development and progression.
Recent changes in organisations/work (Arnold et al, 1998)
Impacts : lateral or downward moves more common, increased concern about ‘quality’ of ‘worklife’ > org.less responsible
Schein (1990) Internal vs External Career
Schein (1978) Concept of Career Anchors
Career Anchor : ‘an area of the self-concept that is so central to the individual that (s)he would not give it up, even if forced to make a difficult choice’
Peoples’ anchors develop and become clear during their early career, as a result of experience and learning from it.
Being able to identify one’s career anchor is an important step in successful career (self-)management
It is important for an organisation to identify the career anchors it offers (for informing selection, transfer, promotion, etc.)
Being an ‘old hand’ at the job.
Maintaining aspects of a valued work role/career and ‘personalising’ it to meet own needs.
Brett et al (1992)
Issues surrounding relocation :
The Process of Career Decision :
Models Predicting Choice of Career :
1. Locus of Control 6. Openness to Alternatives
2. Analysis 7. Ability to resume responsibility
3. Synthesis 8. Ability to take on new roles
4. Semantic Structure 9. Ability to take risks with oneself
Freewill vs Determinism
Nature vs Nurture
Do theories of 20th century theories of career choice and career development hold true in 21st century?