By bukola akinjobi carrie beard and jennifer roper
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By Bukola Akinjobi, Carrie Beard, and Jennifer Roper. Before OSHA…. 14,500 American workers were killed annually on the job. Nearly 2,200,000 were disabled annually in on the job accidents. State Enforcement. Few laws enacted. Failed to allocate appropriate funds to enforce these laws.

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Before osha l.jpg
Before OSHA…

  • 14,500 American workers were killed annually on the job.

  • Nearly 2,200,000 were disabled annually in on the job accidents.

State enforcement l.jpg
State Enforcement

  • Few laws enacted.

  • Failed to allocate appropriate funds to enforce these laws.

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OSHA is created

  • Established in 1971

  • Occupational Safety and Health Act

  • An agency of the Department of Labor

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  • OSHA “aims to ensure employee safety and health in the United States by working with employers and employees to create better working environments”

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The Early Years

  • Arbitrary and inconsistent enforcement

  • Retrofit guards and other safety devices on existing equipment

  • Implement other hazard controls

  • Other requirements, such as mandated training, communication, and extensive documentation

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With time…

  • OSHA-compliant safety features on new machinery.

  • Consistent enforcement.

  • Outdated or irrelevant rules have been repealed or are not enforced.

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Regulatory Impact

  • Guards on Moving Parts

  • Permissible Exposure Limits

  • Personal Protective Equipment

  • Lock Out/Tag Out

  • Hazard Communication

  • Bloodborne Pathogens

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In the News…

  • Safe cleanup from Hurricane Gustav, 9/5/08

  • New report released showing decline in worker fatalities, 8/20/08

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OSHA Alliance Program and Strategic Partnership Program

  • OSHA Alliance Program:

    • Work with labor unions, trade or professional groups, government agencies, and educational institutions

      • Activities of alliances:

        • Assist OSHA in developing interactive, web-based training tools on occupational safety and health topics

        • Help develop Safety and Health Topics pages

        • Appear at trade shows and conferences.

  • Strategic Partnership Program:

    • Focus on safety and health programs and include enforcement , outreach and training components

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    Safety and Health Achievement Recognition Program and Voluntary Protection Programs

    • Safety and Health Achievement Recognition Program (SHARP):

      • Recognizes small employers who develop, implement and continuously improve effective safety and health programs at their business

    • Voluntary Protection Programs (VPP):

      • Promote effective worksite-based safety and health.

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    Outreach, Education, Compliance Assistance Voluntary Protection Programs


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    OSHA Training Institute Voluntary Protection Programs

    • Provide Training and Education in occupational safety and health

    • Trains

      • Federal and state compliance officers

      • State consultants

      • Federal agency personnel

      • Private sector

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    OSHA Training Institute Education Center Voluntary Protection Programs

    • OTI education center is an extension of the OSHA Training Institute

    • The program was created in October 1992

    • As of 2007 there are a total of 26 OTI education centers

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    Courses by OTI Education Center Voluntary Protection Programs

    • OTI provides online courses and courses located at OSHA education centers in all OSHA regions

    • Popular courses:

      • #500 Trainer Course in Occupational Safety and Health Standards for the Construction Industry

      • #501 Trainer Course in Occupational Safety and Health Standards for General Industry

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    OSHA Outreach Training Program Voluntary Protection Programs

    • Train workers in the basics of occupational safety and health

    • Individuals can attend a one week program that enables them to teach 10-hour or 30-hour courses in contruction or general industy safety

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    OSHA Certificate Voluntary Protection Programs

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    Workers Voluntary Protection Programs

    Rights and Responsibilities

    Follow all safety rules and regulations

    Have right to training

    Have right to request employer fix hazards

    Problems in the Workplace

    Imminent danger and refusal of dangerous work

    Discrimination for filing complaints

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    OSHA General Duty Clause Voluntary Protection Programs

    "Each employer shall furnish to each of his employees employment and a place of employment which are free from recognized hazards that are causing or are likely to cause death or serious physical harm to his employees."

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    OSHA Inspections Voluntary Protection Programs

    What Triggers an OSHA Inspection?

    • Imminent Danger• Catastrophes & Fatal Accidents• Employee Complaints or Referrals• Programmed Inspections

    Planned or Targeted• Follow-Up Inspections.

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    OSHA Insepction Process Voluntary Protection Programs

    • Opening Conference

      Inspection purpose described

      Complaint is provided, if applicable

      Records summoned for inspection

    • Walk around

      Identify potential safety & health hazards

      Evaluation of safety and health program

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    OSHA Inspection Citations Voluntary Protection Programs

    • Abatement

      Eliminate workplace hazards

    • Variances

      Length of time for abatement

    • Penalties and Fines

    • Employer must post a copy citation near place where violation occurred, for 3 days or until violation abated

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    Violations and Penalties Voluntary Protection Programs

    • Other-than-serious (up to $7,000)

      Probably would not cause Death

    • Serious (mandatory $7,000)

      Substantial Probably of causing Death

    • Willful (minimum $5,000 to $70,000)

      Employee Death due indifference of known hazard

      up to $500,000 fine or six months incarceration

    • Repeated($70,000) Failure to abate($7,000)

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    Major Compliance Forms Voluntary Protection Programs

    • OSHA Form 300

      Log of Work-Related Injuries and Illnesses

    • OSHA Form 301

      Injury and Illness Incident Report

    • OSHA Form 300A

      Summary of Work-Related Injuries and Illnesses

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    Regulations and Standards Voluntary Protection Programs

    • Regulations

      General guideline

    • Standards

      Developed in response to a specific hazard

      Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)

      Blood-born Pathogens

      Chemical Hazard Communication

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    Underreporting Study Voluntary Protection Programs

    • Hidden Tragedy: Under reporting of work place Injuries and Illnesses

      US House of Representatives June 2008

      Committee of Education and Labor

      As much as 69% of illness an Injuries never make it into the Survey of Occupational Injuries and Illnesses (SOII)

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    Extra Information Voluntary Protection Programs

    • Videos on OSHA:



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    Resources Voluntary Protection Programs




    • Spellman. Surviving an OSHA Audit: A Management Guide. CRC Press. 1998.