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Basic Concepts in Rhetoric Informative Speaking that is Not for Dummies Some Guidelines for the Info Speaking Assignment Your audience is your audience The topic must be business-related Salience is key Keep the presentation informative rather than persuasive

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basic concepts in rhetoric

Basic Concepts in Rhetoric

Informative Speaking that is Not for Dummies

some guidelines for the info speaking assignment
Some Guidelines for the Info Speaking Assignment
  • Your audience is your audience
  • The topic must be business-related
  • Salience is key
  • Keep the presentation informative rather than persuasive
informative speaking topic ideas
Informative Speaking Topic Ideas
  • Look for new trends/services/problems
  • Check business related web sites
    • www.businessdaily.com
    • www.morningstar.com
    • www.cbs.marketwatch.com
  • Browse business related magazines—Fast Company, Fortune, Red Herring, Business Week, Harvard Business Review
basic rhetorical concepts
Basic Rhetorical Concepts
  • Modes of Proof (Aristotle)
    • Ethos---credibility
    • Pathos--emotions
    • Logos--logical proof
  • Proof begins and ends with the audience
  • Five Canons of Rhetoric--Invention, Arrangement, Style, Delivery, Memory
invention the first among equals
Invention--the first among equals
  • Invention defined: “Energizing the truth” or “the discovery and adaptation of arguments and material for the speech”
  • Step 1--determining the universe of arguments available to the rhetor
  • Step 2--adapting that material to the particular audience
audience adaptation
Audience Adaptation
  • Situational Analysis
    • Why are they here?
    • Size of group, time of day, size of room, amplification, availability of media?
    • Are they hostile, favorable or indifferent?
  • Demographic Analysis
    • Age, group affiliation, race or ethnicity, religion or creed, sex, socio-economic status
arrangement and organizational patterns
Arrangement and Organizational Patterns
  • The Connection with Invention
  • Topical
  • Spatial or Geographical
  • Chronological
  • Cause/Effect
understanding speech anxiety
Understanding Speech Anxiety
  • It is a natural physical reaction to stress
  • Understand the spiral of anxiety
  • Speech anxiety peaks at the beginning of a speech and then decreases
  • Studies show that audiences consistently underestimate speaker anxiety
dealing with speech anxiety
Dealing With Speech Anxiety
  • Avoid avoidance
  • Avoid caffeine
  • Practice, practice, practice
  • Concentrate on the first two minutes
  • Deep breathing
  • Avoid bottling up nervous energy
special considerations for informative speeches
Special considerations for informative speeches
  • Understand the knowledge level of your audience
  • Consider other time savers rather than jargon
  • Have other non-techies review your speech
  • Sensitize your audience to the issue and encourage interruptions for translation
introductions goals and methods
Goals

Gain Attention

Develop Rapport

Establish Credibility

Motivate Listeners

Preview Main Points

Methods

Startling Statistic

Personal Experience

Quote an Expert

Tell a humorous story

Preview of your main points

Introductions--Goals and Methods
transitions getting from here to there
Transitions--getting from here to there...
  • Why are they necessary?
    • --oral v. written discourse
    • --signposting
  • When do you use them?
    • --moving between identifiable parts of the speech
  • When do you plan for them?
    • --prior to the speech!
conclusions goals and methods
Goals

Review Speech Content

Provide a Sense of Closure

Motivate Your Audience

Methods

Tie in to something from your Introduction

Provide an Explicit Review of Main Points

End with a Closing Thought or Final Statement

Conclusions--Goals and Methods