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Agro - MAPS. A global spatial database on sub national agricultural land-use statistics. Land use (LU). “..human activities which are directly related to land, making use of its resources or having an impact on it ...” FAO, 1995.

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slide1

Agro-MAPS

A global spatial database on

sub national agricultural land-use statistics

land use lu
Land use (LU)

“..human activities which are directly related to land, making use of its resources or having an impact on it ...”FAO, 1995

  • Socio-economic purpose of the activities (functional definition)
  • Usually multiple purposes
  • Manipulation of natural ecosystems in order to obtain benefits
  • Material benefits/ products (e.g. cereals, livestock)
  • Immaterial benefits/ services (e.g. erosion prevention)
  • Often some unwanted impacts!!

Outputs

Management

Inputs

What is the land used for?

production vs. extractive process

why we need lu information
Why we need LU information
  • Land resources are finite & usually scarce!
  • Competition among various land uses (e.g. urban expansion into agricultural areas)
  • Different land uses affect the natural equilibrium of ecosystems differently - dissimilar impacts on the sustainable flow of goods & services
  • Thus, knowledge of current LU (& land resources) is needed for formulating changes leading to sustainable use of the resources

LU – Key input for planning & policy formulation

  • national regional/global scales
local development issues
Local development issues
  • Zambia
  • Cited in NEAP:
  • Land degradation
  • Deforestation (Zambia 2.4%/yr – FRA 2000)
  • Air pollution & acid rain in mining areas
  • Water pollution & inadequate sanitation
  • Wildlife (game & fish) depletion
  • Most recent country wide LU information – 1975
  • Focus of ILUA (integrated land use assessment) initiative

Source: 2nd Zambian National report to UNCCD

environmental conventions
Environmental conventions
  • The Convention on Wetlands (Ramsar Convention), 1971
    • Programs to conserve and use wisely all wetlands; 137 Parties;
  • Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora, CITES 1975
    • To safeguard species from over exploitation; 164 parties; Appropriate wildlife management & trade policies
  • Convention on Biological Diversity, CBD 1992
    • 187 Parties; biodiversity conservation
  • UN Framework Convention on Climate Change, 1992
  • Kyoto Protocol (joint implementation, CDM, emissions trading)
  • UN Convention to Combat Desertification, UNCCD, 1994
    • Programs to reduce degradation of land in arid, semi-arid and dry sub-humid areas; 166 Parties;
status of available data 1
Status of available data - 1

Regional/ global data

  • Crops FAOSTAT; IFPRI
  • ForestsFAO (FRA)
  • Water AQUASTAT, U. Kassel
  • Cultivation intensity NASA
  • Eco systems USGS
  • Protected areas UNEP-WCMC
  • Land cover/use FAO(Africover); USGS; IFPRI; SAGE; LUCC; MA; GLC2000; Global Mapping;

Shortcomings: ± limited coverage / number of classes; non-standard definitions; insufficient information on management aspects; insufficient detail; modelled data

status of available data 2
Food security & poverty

Land degradation

Climate change

Policy formulation

Land use planning

Investments in sustainable agriculture

..

Status of available data - 2

Insufficient agricultural land use information needed to examine national, regional & global issues

TOPICAL ISSUES

agricultural land use
Agricultural land use

How?

Management: inputs, technologies

How much?

Quantities: areas, products, ..

What?

Objectives:Products, services

When?

Timing of operations

Where?

Location & spatial extent

Why?

eg. reasons (biophysical,

socio-economic,.)

Major characteristics of agricultural land use

Versus Land cover... the observed (bio)physical cover on the earth’s surface (LCCS, 2000)

agro maps database contents
Agro-MAPS database contents

How much?

Quantities: areas, products, ..

  • Statistics aggregated by sub-national administrative districts.
  • crop production
  • area harvested
  • crop yields

What?

Objectives:Products,services

Where?

Location & spatial extent

Major contents of the Agro-MAPS database

contributors to agro maps

FAO

Contributors to Agro-MAPS

SAGE

Map source: CGIAR

IFPRI

  • Global data base; subnational; geo-referenced;
  • Pooled contributions (FAO, IFPRI, SAGE, CIAT, ..)
compilation tabular statistics
Compilation - tabular statistics

FAO codes

area harvested

barley

production

Spelling; name changesredistricting

Boundary file codes;SALB

Missing; not available; zero; validation vs FAOSTAT

  • Data from diverse sources; IPR issues
  • Harmonization; accuracy!!
compilation of boundaries
Compilation of boundaries

MALAWI

FAO

IFPRI

  • Differences in 2nd level boundaries from different secondary sources
  • Boundary disputes
  • Coding scheme
matching statistics to boundaries
Matching statistics to boundaries

Challenge:

Find the right map!

subnational vs national statistics
Subnational vs national statistics

Crop distribution – Maize

FAOSTAT

Agro-MAPS

Statistics aggregated by 57 Countries

Statistics aggregated by5690 Administrative units

status of agro maps
Status of Agro-MAPS

Countries for which data are contained in Agro-MAPS

agro maps explorer
Agro-MAPS Explorer

A tool for browsing the Agro-MAPS database

Search & output parametersAdmin1; maize; productionMost recent data; shapefile

on line query data access
On-line query & data access

Download data

CD-ROM publication:all regions - end 2004

Interactive query & display of maps

applications of agro maps data
Food security & poverty

Land degradation

Climate change

Policy formulation

Land use planning

Investments in sustainable agriculture

..

Potential for expansion of agricultural areas

ratio of cultivated to cultivable land

Potential for intensification

Ratio of harvested to cropland areas

Ratio of cultivated land to fallow land

agricultural land under irrigation

Sustainability

arable and permanent cropland area (the cropland area used for food production) (UNCSD indicator)

Applications of Agro-MAPS data

Indicator analysis – (e.g. monitoring progress - MDG Goals)

Goal 1: Eradicate extreme poverty & hunger

Goal 7: Ensure environmental sustainability

SELECTED INDICATORS from Agro-MAPS

TOPICAL ISSUES

land degradation assessment

Reponses

Driving forces

Pressures

Impacts

State

Land degradation assessment

Macro-economic policiesLand tenure policies Conservation/ rehabilitationEarly warning systemsInvestments

Macro-economic policies Growth in population, incomeLand use Land tenure Poverty Natural disasters

LADA project

Ecosystem Approach

Relationships: DPSIRDecision making tool

Agro-MAPS data

  • Poverty & migrationReduction in products & services
    • Carbon sequestration
    • Water quality; biodiversity
  • Habitat destruction
  • Rising demands
  • Agriculture sector: products / inputs - over grazing - nutrient mining
  • Waste disposal
indicators pressure
Indicators: pressure
  • Percentage of agricultural land under exploitation
  • % of agricultural land used for crops (annual/ permanent)
  • Agricultural area per crop (cereal, oil crops, forage, woodlands)
  • Number of hectares of agricultural land per farmer; arable land per capita
  • Size of agricultural land under irrigation
  • Ratio of cultivated to cultivable land
  • Ratio of cultivated land to fallow land
  • Increase in cropping intensity (harvested areas/total cropland)
  • Agricultural area (intensely farmed, semi-intensely farmed, and uncultivated)
  • Increase in percentage irrigated area to cropland area
  • Percentage of cultivation on open access land, common property and private property
  • Land use (e.g. cultivated areas) in areas of high erosion potential
indicators state
Indicators: State
  • Ratio between actual and estimated crop yields
  • Land productivity adjusted for input use.
  • Net nutrient extraction in cropland, pastures, and forests
  • Number of crops under cultivation (>100ha) (bio-diversity)
  • Number of rare/minor crops under cultivation (>100ha) (biodiversity)
  • Area of each crop (biodiversity)
  • Number of cultivars per crop (biodiversity)
  • Area of each cultivar in a given year or period (biodiversity)
  • Crops (livestock) grown as a percentage of number 30 years beforehand
  • Number of key crop varieties (domestic, non-domestic)
  • Value of Production (VoP) per hectare of cropland
indicators response
Indicators - Response
  • Decentralized local-level NRM involving key stakeholders
  • Environmental impact statement requirement
  • Government spending in rural infrastructure (e.g. wells)
  • Subsidies to agricultural production
  • NGOs’ programs and actions plans
  • Number of land titles given
  • Increased access to non-traditional sources of energy
  • Percentage of protected areas of different ecosystems
  • Percentage of rural population having access to extension services
  • Farmers served by soil conservation programs
  • Use of techniques for soil improvement/ conservation
  • Changes in input use/ management practices (fertiliser, irrigation, genetic improvements, conservation agriculture,..);
  • Increase in access to credit for switching to better management practices
  • Environmental protection expenditures
zones at risk to degradation
Zones at risk to degradation

Comparison:

  • Soil suitability - Results of agro-ecologic studies
  • Agro-MAPS data on actual land use

Agro-MAPS

GAEZ Cultivation potential for rain-fed grain maize production (intermediate input level)

Améliorer: Répartition selon les zones des cultures au lieu des unités administratives

characterization farming systems

11. Agro-pastoralmillet/sorghum

7. Root crop

Irrigated areas

2. Tree-crop

expert opinion, GAEZ,..

Characterization -Farming systems

8. Cereal-root

Farming systems & poverty study, 2001

  • Appropriate investment strategy?
  • Expansion; intensification;
  • Off-farm income; abandon agriculture

Agro-MAPS: major crop combinations

future plans agro maps
Publish data: CD & web

Database improvement & Development of applications in partnership with other institutions

time series data

improved spatial allocation (RS input)

......

Future plans - Agro-MAPS

Land and Plant Nutrition

Management Service, AGLL

Land and Water Development Division

FAO

http://www.fao.org/landandwater/agll/agromaps/interactive/index.jsp

land classification
Land classification
  • Used as a guide for collecting selected information on land relevant for decision making
    • policy formulation; environmental monitoring (e. land degradation); .....
  • Systematic arrangement ; grouping by similar characteristics
    • land cover (bio-physical cover) (LCCS-FAO)
    • land use (purpose: goods & services, inputs, management)
  • Class definition
    • ‘a priori’ (before data collection)
      • standardized classes; rigid
    • ‘a posteriori’ (cluster after data collection)
      • could yield non-standardized classes; flexible
  • hierarchic vs. non hierarchic (different scales!)
  • Characterization vs. classification
land cover map using lccs
Land cover map using LCCS

... the observed (bio)physical cover on the earth’s surface (LCCS, 2000)

fao lc classification system

VEGETATED

NON-VEGETATED

Terrestrial

A1

Aquatic or regularlyfloodedland

A2

Terrestrial

B1

Aquatic or regularlyfloodedland

B2

culti-vated

A11

natural/semi-

natural

A12

cultiv-

ated

A23

natural/semi-

natural

A24

built up & assoc.

areas

B15

bare

areas

B18

arti-ficial water-bodies

B27

inland

water

B28

FAO - LC classification system

+ more classifiers & optional Attributes

  • increasing worldwide adoption of LCCS as standard
  • possible to relate LCCS & UNSD classes (NB. forest thresholds differ – 15 vs. 10%)
fao land cover classification system ii

A. Life form

B. Spatial Aspects

C. Crop combination

D. Cover relatedcultural practices

L.

Land form

M/N

Lith./Soils

O

Climate

P. Altitude

Q. Erosion

W. Cover

S. Crop type

FAO Land cover classification system II

VEGETATED

Terrestrial - A1

Aquatic/reg. flooded land - A2

(semi)natural A12

cultivated A23

(semi)natural A24

cultivated A11

Classifiers

Environmental attributes

Technical (discipline) attributes

lccs classifiers attributes a11
LCCS: Classifiers & attributes –A11
  • trees, shrubs, herbaceous,.

A. Life form

  • large, medium, small sized fields
  • continuous, scattered (clustered, isolated)

B. Spatial Aspects

C. Crop combination

  • single, multiple crop
  • rainfed, post flooding, irrigated,.
  • shifting cultivation, fallow, permanent

D. Cultural practices

  • level, sloping, steep land; composite landforms

L. Land form

  • igneous, sedimentary, metamorphic
  • bare rock, soil, loose sands, hard pans; soil group

M/N. Lithology /Soils

  • tropics, sub-tropics, temperate, ... .; LGP

O. Climate

  • <300, 300-1500, 1500-3000, 3000->5000 metres,.

P. Altitude

  • erosion visible, not visible.

Q. Erosion

  • permanent (trees, shrubs); temporary (herbaceous)

W. Crop Cover/ density

  • food/ non-food crops

S. Crop type

CODE: A11 A1 B2 C1 D1

rainfed

trees

single crop

small-sized

additional attributes
Additional attributes

Not adequately covered in LCCS

  • pest/disease/ weed management
  • controlled environment management (i.e use not related to inherent land suitability)
  • use of fertilizer, or other soil amendments
  • terrain or slope modifications
  • above and below ground biomass management
  • drainage management
  • soil conservation/ cover protection
  • water treatment/ use management
harmonizing definitions
Harmonizing definitions

Predominantly

forestry land use

Predominant landuse other than forestry

LAND USE

High tree presence

LAND COVER

FRA: Trees outside forests

UNFCCC/KP: Forest

FRA: Forest

UNFCCC/KP: Forest

FRA: Trees outside forests

UNFCCC/KP: optional forest

FRA: Forest

UNFCCC/KP: optional forest

Option zone, KP

Threshold FRA

FRA: Other wooded land

UNFCCC/KP: non-forest

FRA: Trees outside forests

UNFCCC/KP: non-forest

Threshold FRA

FRA: Other land without trees

UNFCCC/KP: non-forest

No trees

linkages to other statistics
Linkages to other statistics

FRA 2005 definition (=UNSD)

Other wooded land: land under forestry or no land use, spanning more than 0.5 ha; with trees > 5m & a canopy cover of 5-10%, or trees able to reach these thresholds in situ; or with a combined cover of shrubs, bushes & trees over 10%

10%

Canopy cover

5%

5 meters

0

Height of trees

linkages to other statistics38
Linkages to other statistics

FRA 2005 definition (= UNSD)

Forest: land under forestry or no land use, spanning more than 0.5 ha; with trees > 5m & a canopy cover of > 10%, or trees able to reach these thresholds in situ

  • includes areas under reforestation; temporarily unstocked areas that are able to regenerate
  • includes firebreaks, windbreaks, tree corridors with area > 0.5ha & width > 20m
  • excludes tree stands used in agricultural production systems (e.g. fruit plantations, agroforestry systems,..)

canopy cover: % of ground area that is directly covered by tree crowns