Abnormal Psychology. Lecture 1. Abnormal Behavior in Historical Context. Chapter 1. Outline. Understanding Psychopathology What is Normal? What is Psychological Disorder? Different Approaches to Psychopathology The Supernatural Tradition The Biological Tradition
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Abnormal Psychology Lecture 1
Abnormal Behavior in Historical Context Chapter 1
Outline • Understanding Psychopathology • What is Normal? • What is Psychological Disorder? • Different Approaches to Psychopathology • The Supernatural Tradition • The Biological Tradition • The Psychological Tradition • The Present: The Scientific Method and an Integrative Approach
Understanding Psychopathology • What is normal? • Provide examples of what is normal and what isn’t • How does the notion of what is normal differ across cultures? • Is there a fixed definition of normal just like there are laws of physics? • So, how do we construe the definition of what is normal and what is not?
Understanding Psychopathology • What is normal? • The definition of ABNORMAL used in DSM-IV-TR (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition) • Abnormal describes behavioral, emotional, or cognitive dysfunctions that are unexpected in their cultural context and associated with personal distress or substantial impairment in functioning.
Understanding Psychopathology • Judy • Psychological disorder consists of three components: • Psychological dysfunction • Breakdown in cognitive, emotional, or behavioral functioning (continuum vs. dimension) • Personal distress • Being extremely upset (caution – sometimes it is normal to be extremely upset) • Atypical or not culturally expected behavior • Social norms and their possible misuse
Different Approaches to Psychopathology • The Supernatural Traditionmental • Mental illness is caused by demons and witches • Shock therapy (pit of snakes, ice-cold water) • Exorcism (religious rituals to get rid of evil spirits) • Mental illness is caused by stress • Rest, sleep, a healthy and happy environment • Mental illness is caused by the movements of the moon and the stars • Pracelsus • lunatic
Different Approaches to Psychopathology • The Biological Tradition • Hippocrates • Mental illness caused by brain pathology, head trauma, heredity • Galen • Humoral theory of disorders (blood, black bile, yellow bile, phlegm) • Pasteur’s germ theory of disease • Mental illness can be caused by a bacterial infection (syphilis) • John P. Grey • Insanity is always due to physical causes and patients suffering from mental illness should be treated as physically ill
Different Approaches to Psychopathology • The Biological Tradition • Focus on diagnosis • Search for biological causes and classification • Therapy • Undiscovered psychopathology – reduced interest in treating patients • Insulin shock therapy • Electroconvulsive therapy ECT • Chemical drugs
Different Approaches to Psychopathology • The Psychological Tradition • Plato and Aristotle • Moral therapy • 18th century – treating patients as normally as possible in normal environments • Philippe Pinel, Benjamin Rush (father of american psychiatry) • Mental hygiene movement • Dorothea Dix – 19th century • Effort to improve care for mentally disordered and make it more accessible
Different Approaches to Psychopathology • The Psychological Tradition • Psychoanalytic theory Anna O. • Mesmerism – ancestor of hypnosis, using unconscious processes in therapy • Catharsis – rapid and sudden release of emotional tension • Structure of the mind (id, ego, superego) • Defense mechanisms (coping styles in response to particular situations, e.g. displacement, denial, projection, rationalization, sublimation) • Psychosexual stages of development (oral, anal, phallic, latency, and genital) • Therapy (free association, dream analysis, hypnosis)
Different Approaches to Psychopathology • The Psychological Tradition • Humanistic Theory • Self-actualizing – we need a freedom to grow in order to reach our highest potential • Maslow (hierarchy of needs) • Person-centered therapy (Rogers) – unconditional positive regard and empathy • Behaviorist Theory • Classical conditioning (Ivan Pavlov) • Little Albert (Watson) • Systematic desensitization (Joseph Wolpe) • Behavior therapy (conditioning and reward)
Different Approaches to Psychopathology • The Present: An Integrative ApproachBedlam • Integration of biological, psychological, social and other approaches to diagnosis and treatment of psychological disorder • Scientific approach to mental disorders • Prevalence (number of people in the population suffering from a disorder at a given time) • Incidence (number of new cases appearing during a specific time period) • Course (pattern of development, e.g. chronic course, episodic course, time-limited course) • Prognosis (anticipated course of a disorder)
Different Approaches to Psychopathology • The Present: An Integrative Approach • Psychopathology • The scientific study of psychological disorders • Mental health professionals • Clinical psychologists (more severe disorders) • Counseling psychologists (vocational issues) • Psychiatrists (emphasize biological treatments) • Psychiatric social workers (treatment focused on social and family issues • Psychiatric nurses (treatment in hospitals)