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Voice over IP Protocol Update. Michael Rubin [email protected] Clear Business Advantages. Revenue/ Min. Traditional. Traditional. Cost/ Min. Operational Savings: Per-port cost  50% Operating costs  45% CO space reqts  90%. Packet. Time. Voice Over Packet. Gateways. Packet.

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Clear business advantages l.jpg
Clear Business Advantages

Revenue/Min.

Traditional

Traditional

Cost/Min.

Operational Savings:Per-port cost  50%Operating costs  45%CO space reqts  90%

Packet

Time


Voice over packet l.jpg
Voice Over Packet

Gateways

Packet

  • Must convert between circuit and packet

Circuit Devices


Wide range of gateways l.jpg
Wide Range of Gateways

Access Gateways

IAD

IAD

LAG

CM

SS7/C7

Circuit

DSLAM

CMTS

  • POTS or PABX interfaces

  • 1-30 calls simultaneously

Carrier Gateway

  • Support SS7 trunks

  • Up to 100,000 calls or more simultaneously


Call control l.jpg
Call Control

  • Need to manage calls between gateways


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Network Model

Zone 5

Zone 1

Operator 2

Zone 4

Zone 2

Zone 3

Operator


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In the Beginning . . .

  • H.323

    • An international (ITU) standard

    • Developed for LAN videoconferencing

    • IP transport

    • PC clients

Packet


H 323 operation l.jpg
H.323 Operation

Call

RAS - registration, admissions, status

Call Signaling - setup, tear down

H.245 - channels, capabilities/preferences, flow control

RTP - audio data

Gatekeeper

Gatekeeper

GW

GW

H.225 - multiplexing, sequence numbering, error handling


H 323 analysis l.jpg
H.323 Analysis

  • Used by older devices

  • Supports only making connections

  • Other features must be implemented in gateway

    • Authorization codes, accounting codes, PINs

    • Two-stage dialing

    • Announcements, digits collection, etc.

  • No way for Gatekeeper to tell Gateway what to do


H 323 analysis10 l.jpg
H.323 Analysis

  • Too inefficient for large carrier gateways

    • Many different connections (H.225, H.245, RTP)

    • Heavy processing (ASN.1 message format)

    • No support for end-to-end SS7

  • Too complex for small access gateways

    • Gateway heavily involved in call setup

    • Too expensive to implement features


Softswitch architecture l.jpg
SoftSwitch Architecture

  • Provisioning

  • Services

  • Routing

  • Control

Softswitch

IAD

IAD

LAG

CM

SS7/C7

Circuit

DSLAM

CMTS

Control Protocol

  • Media conversion

  • Echo cancellation

  • Audio processing


Why a new model l.jpg
Why a New Model?

  • Component flexibility

    • Soft switch and MG can be from different vendors

    • Can mix MGs from different vendors

  • Central control

  • Lower cost

    • Soft switch benefits from Moore’s Law

    • Intelligence (=cost) removed from MG


Gateway control protocols l.jpg
Gateway Control Protocols

Coordination

  • Industry standards

    • Internet Protocol Device Control (IPDC)

    • Media Gateway Control Protocol (MGCP)

  • Standards Activity

    • IETF Megaco Working Group

    • ITU Study Group 16 (H.248)


Softswitch analysis l.jpg
Softswitch Analysis

  • Best for small gateways

    • Features implemented in softswitch

    • Central provisioning

    • Minimum requirements in gateway

    • Gateways can be very inexpensive

  • Adaptable for large carrier gateways

    • Efficient processing

    • Can support end-to-end SS7

    • Large networks can have multiple softswitches


From the internet l.jpg
From the Internet . . .

  • Session Initiation Protocol (SIP)

    • An IETF recommendation

    • Used to initiate multimedia sessions

    • Works with other protocols (SDP, RTP, etc.)

Packet


Sip evolution l.jpg
SIP Evolution

  • Many efforts to apply to telephony

    • PSTN-Internet (PINT) working group

    • IP Telephony (IPTel) working group

    • Distributed Call Signaling (DCS) efforts

    • Inter-Domain Signaling (SIP-T)

  • Vocal Internet following

  • SIP devices starting to appear

    • Interoperability “bake-offs”


Sip analysis l.jpg
SIP Analysis

  • Much more “light-weight” than H.323

  • Supports call signaling only

  • Used for interoperability with edge devices

    • PCs

    • IP Phones/PABXs

    • Low-end gateways

    • IADs


Market reality l.jpg
Market Reality

  • Softswitch architecture has won for carrier core networks

  • Required in virtually all carrier and vendor architectures

  • Long-term direction is Megaco/H.248

    • Most softswitches and devices currently implement MGCP


Softswitch must be multiprotocol l.jpg
Softswitch Must Be Multiprotocol

PSTN

IAD

CM

CPE

LAG

CMTS

DSLAM

SoftSwitch

CL4

CL5

SIPH.323

Other Zone/Network

MGCP, H.248

PBX


Call management standards l.jpg
Call Management Standards

  • Within a Zone

  • Zone-to-Zone

  • Operator-to-Operator


Inter domain signaling l.jpg
Inter-Domain Signaling

Softswitch

Softswitch

H.323 (ITU/ETSI)

SIP-T (IETF)

BICC (ITU)

MG

MG

MG

MG

MG

MG

Not addressed by MGCP, H.248, etc.


Inter domain signaling analysis l.jpg
Inter-Domain Signaling Analysis

  • Likely to differ by operator

  • Supports call signaling only

  • Needs to support end-to-end SS7/C7


Summary l.jpg

Need to support both large carrier gateways and small devices

Softswitch model better than H.323 for both

Megaco/H.248 the long term gateway control protocol

H.323 and SIP will be used for customer packet devices

Softswitch must mediate between them

Summary


Thank you l.jpg

Thank You devices

Michael Rubin

Sonus Networks, Inc.

5 Carlisle Road

Westford, MA 01886,

Phone: 1.978.589 8422

Fax: 1.978.392.9118

[email protected]


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