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Welcome to . Starry Monday at Otterbein. Astronomy Lecture Series -every first Monday of the month- February 7, 2005 Dr. Uwe Trittmann. Today’s Topics. Famous Telescopes Objects worthy to be observed The Night Sky in February. Feedback!.

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starry monday at otterbein

Welcome to

Starry Monday at Otterbein

Astronomy Lecture Series

-every first Monday of the month-

February 7, 2005

Dr. Uwe Trittmann

today s topics
Today’s Topics
  • Famous Telescopes
  • Objects worthy to be observed
  • The Night Sky in February
  • Please write down suggestions/your interests on the note pads provided
  • If you would like to hear from us, please leave your email / address
  • To learn more about astronomy and physics at Otterbein, please visit
    • (Obs.)
    • (Physics Dept.)
  • From Galileo to Hubble
  • Light collectors
  • Two types:
    • Reflectors


    • Refractors (Lenses)
famous telescopes galileo
Famous Telescopes - Galileo
  • Galileo’s first telescope was 3x magnifying
  • his last one 32 x
famous telescopes newton
Famous Telescopes -Newton
  • First Reflector ever
  • Built around 1670
  • After this: gargantuan


famous telescopes hevelius
Famous Telescopes - Hevelius

Rooftop observatory of Johannes Hevelius (1670)

famous telescopes hevelius9
Famous Telescopes - Hevelius

60 inch ^

140 inch 

famous telescopes herschel
Famous Telescopes - Herschel

Herschel detected Uranus (1781)

famous telescopes lord ross
Famous Telescopes – Lord Ross
  • 72 inch Reflector
  • built during potato famine in Ireland
  • Largest Telescope until Mt Wilson (1917)
famous telescopes yerkes
Famous Telescopes – Yerkes
  • Largest Refractor Telescope ever
  • 40 inch lens
  • Built 1897
famous telescopes mt palomar
Famous Telescopes – Mt Palomar
  • 5 Meter Telescope – Huge and heavy mirror
  • On Mt. Palomar in California
famous telescopes hubble space telescope
Famous Telescopes – Hubble Space Telescope
  • In orbit around earth
  • No limitations due to earth’s atmosphere
  • Brilliant pictures
famous telescopes arecibo radio telescope
Famous Telescopes – Arecibo Radio Telescope
  • Located in Puerto Rico
  • 300m diameter
  • Receives Radio waves
  • Built 1963
  • SETI
famous people
Famous People

Hubble in prime focus of Einstein visits Mt Wilson Mt Palomar.

Hubble detected the Expansion of the Universe

 Proof of Einstein’s General Relativity Theory

largest earth based telescopes
Largest Earth-Based Telescopes
  • Keck I and II, Mauna Kea, Hawai’i
    • 36  1.8 m hexagonal mirrors;

equivalent to 10 m

    • Above most of atmosphere

(almost 14,000 ft ASL)

    • Operating since 1993
mauna kea
Mauna Kea
  • Elevation: 14,000 ft.
  • Oxygen: 60%
  • Freezing on top, snorkeling at sea level
  • Road: strictly 4 wheels!
mauna kea20
Mauna Kea
  • 325 observing days per year!
  • Darkest skies on the planet!


classifying objects
Classifying Objects
  • Sun and Moon
  • Planets and their moons
  • Stars and Constellations
    • Variable stars
  • The Milky Way
  • Deep Sky Objects
    • Star Clusters (Open and Globular)
    • Bright and Dark Nebulae
    • Galaxies (used to be called nebulae also)
when to observe which objects
When to observe which Objects
  • The surface features on the Moon are best seen when the Moon is not full (nor new )
  • Observe Jupiter’s four Galilean moons with binoculars whenever Jupiter’s up
  • Small telescope will show Saturn’s rings
  • Milky Way can be seen under dark skies

(…but already in Madison county)

deep sky objects
Deep Sky Objects
  • Usually faint and/or small
  • Best observed under dark skies/ moonless nights
  • Some are binocular objects, some require sizeable telescopes
deep sky objects open clusters
Deep Sky Objects: Open Clusters
  • Classic example: Plejades (M45)
  • Few hundred stars
  • Young: “just born”
  • Still parts of matter
  • around the stars
deep sky objects globular clusters
Deep Sky Objects: Globular Clusters
  • Classic example: Great Hercules Cluster (M13)
  • Spherical clusters
  • may contain

millions of stars

  • Old stars
  • Great tool to study

stellar life cycle

from the rooftop
From the Rooftop

Plejades in Taurus,

Open Cluster

M92 in Hercules, Globular Cluster 

deep sky objects nebulae
Deep Sky Objects: Nebulae

Classic example: Orion Nebula (M 42)

  • hot glowing gas

Temperatures ~ 8000K

  • Made to glow by

ultraviolet radiation

emitted by young

O- or B-type (hot)

stars located inside

  • Color predominantly

red, the color of a

particular hydrogen

emission line (“H”)

friday night
Friday Night
  • 27 seconds exposure
friday night32
Friday Night
  • 87 seconds exposure
dark nebulae
Dark Nebulae
  • Classic Example: Horsehead Nebula in Orion

Trifid Nebula(M20)

Good example for

dark dust lanes in

front of an emission


deep sky objects planetary nebulae
Deep Sky Objects: Planetary Nebulae
  • Classic Example: Ring nebula in Lyra (M57)

(Here: “Eye of God” Nebula)

  • Dead, exploded stars
  • We see gas expanding

in a sphere

  • In the middle is the

dead star, a

“White Dwarf”

deep sky objects galaxies
Deep Sky Objects: Galaxies
  • Classic example: Andromeda Galaxy (M31)
  • “Island universes”
  • Made out of billions

of stars and dust

  • Very far away

(millions of ly’s)

  • Different types:
    • Spiral, elliptic, irr.
deep sky catalogues
Deep Sky Catalogues
  • Some of the best deep sky objects can be found in the Messier Catalogue (e.g. M 31)
  • Messier (around 1770) catalogued the objects not to confuse them with comets
  • There are 110 Messier Objects
  • Other catalogues:
    • NGC: new general catalogue (1880) lists 7800 objects
    • Caldwell list: 109 best non-messier objects
    • Herschel 400: from Herschel’s famous list, early 1800’s
the night sky in february
The Night Sky in February
  • The sun is still very low in the sky -> long nights!
  • Winter constellations (Orion, Gemini, Taurus,…) contain many bright stars and objects
  • Saturn was in Opposition last month (i.e. at its brightest)
moon phases
Moon Phases
  • Today (Waning crescent, 2%)
  • 2 / 8 (New Moon)
  • 2 / 15 (First Quarter Moon)
  • 2 / 28 (Full Moon)
  • 3 / 3 (Last Quarter Moon)
today at noon
Today at Noon
  • Sun at meridian, i.e. exactly south
10 pm
10 PM

Typical observing hour, early January

  • no Moon
  • Saturn!



High in the sky:

Perseus and


with Plejades and the Double Cluster

north east
  • Big Dipper points to the north pole
due south
Due South
  • The Winter Constellations
    • Orion
    • Taurus
    • Canis Major
    • Gemini
    • Canis Minor

Spring Constellations

- Cancer

- Leo

- Hydra

Deep Sky Objects:

- Beehive Cluster (M44)

mark your calendars
Mark your Calendars!
  • Next Starry Monday at Otterbein: March 7, 2005, 7 pm

(this is a Monday )

  • We’ll talk about Mars Missions and more…
  • Web pages:
    • (Obs.)
    • (Physics Dept.)