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Old Business. -Course Syllabus -3X5 cards -Java (which version?). Good Design Comes from understanding Bad Design. Usability. Design. Implementation. Evaluation. Affordances -strong clues as to use Mappings the controls and their result in the real world

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old business

Old Business

-Course Syllabus

-3X5 cards

-Java (which version?)





Affordances-strong clues as to use
  • Mappings the controls and their result in the real world
  • Feedback- what action has taken place
  • Constraints- constraints the user
  • Affordances provide “strong clues” to the operation of things
  • Push buttons, knobs, and light switches are all affordances — just by looking at them you can discern their purpose.
visual affordances
Visual Affordances
  • Appearance indicates how the object should be used
    • chair for sitting
    • table for placing things on
    • buttons for pushing
  • complex things may need explaining, but simple things (labels, instructions) should not
  • Mappings refers to the relationship between two things
  • Eg, control and movement
    • Steering wheel
    • Door handle
visible constraints
Visible Constraints
  • Limits the actions possible perceived from object’s appearance
  • For example, a key into a door or “graying out” a selection from the user.
visibility feedback
Visibility (feedback)
  • Allow the user to be informed
  • Show him the state
    • did I set the watch correctly?
    • can I see the elevator in its shaft?
  • Did I do this task correctly?
transfer effects
Transfer effects
  • Users will transfer their expectations of similar objects to your design
  • For example, the typewriter model is now the computer keyboard
conceptual model
Conceptual model
  • People have “mental models” on how things should work
  • Conceptual models come from:
    • affordances
    • constraints
    • mapping
    • similar devices or interfaces
    • interactions
conceptual model13
Conceptual model
  • The user will misunderstand the interface if the attributes are misleading
  • Example of a bad design (digital watch)
    • affordances: there are 4 push buttons but since all 4 look similar, what do they do?
    • Constraint and mapping: no visible relation between buttons and possible actions of button presses
guidelines for design
Guidelines for design
  • 1. Provide a good conceptual model
    • - allows users to predict the consequences of actions. Communicates the system to the user
  • 2. Make things visible
    • the user’s intentions, required actions are sensible and non-arbitrary.
    • Use visible affordances, mapping and constraints
who will use your design
Who will use your design?
  • Beginners - walk-up-and-use systems (internet)
  • casual users - help or reference guides (most software we buy)
  • intermediate users - knows how to quickly use the system (custom software)
  • experts - shortcuts are used (custom software)