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Holistic Curriculum Planning to enhance the teaching and learning of English language Language Learning Support Section, EMB 20 December 2006 in secondary schools Programme Rundown $3 million is a large sum of money. How can we use it? frustrated… confused…

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Language learning support section emb 20 december 2006 l.jpg

Holistic Curriculum Planning

to enhance the

teaching and learning of English language

Language Learning Support Section, EMB

20 December 2006

in secondary schools


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Programme Rundown

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$3 million is a large sum of money. How can we use it?

frustrated…

confused…

How can we succeed in getting $$$ ?

EMB won’t give us the full amount so easily…

Accountable?

Sustainable?

Guarantee

good results?

How to explain to other subject panels why all the resources go to English …

If we are not able to get $3 million, it’s a waste of time writing the proposal.

6-year plan…

Holistic planning???

A large sum of $

=

A heavy workload?


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What could have caused such a panic?

What new and special things can we do?

6 years is a long

period of time…

must have a lot of additional things to do…

How can we spend the money?

How can we get the full amount?

I don’t know how to write the plan…

Any training??


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No resources

PLEASE!!!


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Holistic planning – the process

The planning process inter-connects:

curriculum development, teacher development and school development

Teacher development

English

Enhancement

Curriculum

development

School development

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Must holistic plans involve very big scale changes?

Scale & school context

  • readiness of the teachers

  • needs and characteristics of the students

  • school goals, etc.

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Smaller scale:

One new focusof English learning per year

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Medium scale:

Balanced development of skills in English learning across the years

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Broader scale:

English across the curriculum

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Common features of a holistic plan

  • Coherence

    (among focus and sub-focuses and strategies)

  • Continuity

    (across years and levels)

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What does a holistic planning process involve?

1. Consideration of a wide range of factors

School context

Strengths and weaknesses

Sustainability

Availability of resources

Other factors….

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School head, subject panels, teachers, parents and students

2. Communication among different stakeholders

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Development of an action plan

Needs

analysis

Identification

of focus

3. Taking each step of planning seriously

Evaluation

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As you watch the role play ...

Note down:

  • what the school plans to undertake

  • why they want to adopt these measures

  • what they want to achieve in the end

Think about:

  • if these measures help students to learn English better

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There

sth novel

sth BIG

Can these

measures help students

learn English better?

Here

What do they plan to do?

  •  Ss’ interest

  • Ss’ standards

  • Ss’ confidence

  • 4 things to do:

  • English opera

  • Campus TV

  • English summer course

  • Tuition lessons

School’s wish to apply for the $

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Let’s read through their draft plan

Comment on:

 how well they analyze their current situation

 how feasible their plan is

 whether it is easy to attain the targets set

 whether they have made the best possible use of the resources

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Let’s look at the draft plan together

I. Present state of play

A. Existing measures at school

Just a stock-taking list

without evaluation of effectiveness of the measures

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Let’s look at the draft plan together

How about needs of other stakeholders

other than students?

Needs identified are too general

and not evidence-based!

I. Present state of play

B. Needs Analysis

Needs identified fail to

help the school decide

what to work on and how

 Students weak in English

  • Students have poor foundation

  • Students lack interest/motivation in learning English

  • Students have little confidence in using English

  • Students do not have exposure to English outside school

  • Students lack family support in learning English

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existing

new

Let’s look at the draft plan together

Objective too broad

II. The plan itself

To improve students’ English standard and motivation

Objective:

Measures:

  • Continue with the use of TBL + Start teaching L.A.

  • Create an English-rich environment at school

  • Develop in students a reading habit

  • English opera

  • Campus TV

  • 2-week summer English course

  • Tuition lessons after school

Too many focuses

No prioritization

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Let’s look at the draft plan together

  • a lot of add-ons on top of

    what they are now doing

 stand-alone measures

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Let’s look at the draft plan together

Co-ordination & supervision

Effective deployment

of human resources

 Availability

Quality

Sustainability

Over-reliance on hire of service

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Let’s look at the draft plan together

… involving

III. Use of resources

Sustain

the impact?

Hiring Drama for Everyone

Hiring of service from a tuition school

Subsidizing Ss to attend a 2-week summer English course

Role of Ts

Employing additional TAs

Employing a GELT

Complement

or extend

c/r teaching?

 Buying equipment to set up the Campus TV

  • Improving facilities in the English Corner

  • Buying more English books for the school library and the English class library

  • Buying an on-line reading programme licence

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… involving people

Trainers from Drama for Everyone

NET

GELT

English Ts

Tutors from the tuition school

Ts from an overseas institute

TAs

Teacher librarians

Let’s look at the draft plan together

III. Use of resources

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Let’s look at the draft plan together

IV. Evaluation

Use of questionnaires, surveys and interviews

 Use of Ts’ observations

 Proper performance in reading

 Progressive improvement in speaking

 An increase in the school average in public exam results

Variety

 Measurable

 Observable

By how

much?

Outcomes can be reflected by deliverables

  • Teachers

  • unit/lesson plans

  • teaching materials

  • resource packages

  • Students

  • their work like book reports, play scripts

  • students’ performances

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There

Here

The Planning Process

V. Evaluation

5-step curriculum renewal process

IV. Implemention (Strategies & Resources)

III. Communicationwith parties involved

II. Priorities & Goals Setting

I. Needs Analysis

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I. Conducting needs analysis

What tools to use

K

I

S

S

Keep

Improve

Start

Stop

S

W

O

T

Strengths

Weaknesses

Opportunities

Threats

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I. Conducting needs analysis

ever-increasing workload & pressure

weak and shy in speaking

principal very supportive

additional funding for English projects

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Keep

Improve

Start

Stop

I. Conducting needs analysis

KISS Analysis

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Evaluate the effectiveness of current measures

 Continue as Ss are more engaged in

tasks  more chance to use English

 But more time needed to finish 1 unit

Inside classroom

  • -Adopt TBL in teaching English

  • Use games and activities in English classrooms

  • Make use of IT (MMLC, on-line reading)

  • English lessons (G.E. + reading + grammar + language arts)

  • Introduce project learning

  • Teach phonics

  • Include lesson(s) for TSA

  • Ss write book reports and journals on top of English compositions

  • Co-teach with the NET in some classes

K

 Better integration of various components?

 Use LA materials in reading lessons?

I

S

S

Project learning in English too difficult for Ss!

S

1 lesson devoted to preparing Ss for TSA?

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Evaluate the effectiveness of current measures

Outside classroom

  • Organize English extra-curricular activities:

  • School radio (lunch-time broadcast)

  • English Week

  •  English Corner

     English Club

     Show & Tell

     Halloween Activities

    - Organize Extensive Reading Scheme

  • Organize English bridging courses for P6 students promoting to S1

  • Organize discretionary enhancement programmes for Ss after school

  • Ss enjoy these activities but

    their effects cannot be sustained

  • Relationship between these activities

    and classroom teaching

I

Majority of Ss still don’t like reading

and they hate doing book reports

I

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I. Conducting needs analysis

KISS Analysis

 Using TBL with the English course book, but use Bk A only

  •  Development of reading skills in students through reading lessons and reading programme

  • Infusion of language arts into the English curriculum

  • Better integration of different components in the English curriculum

 Creating more opportunities for students to speak the target language

Mechanical teaching and over-drilling of grammar

 Excessive emphasis on project learning in the English KLA

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There

V. Evaluation

IV. Implemention (Strategies & Resources)

III. Communicationwith parties involved

Here

II. Priorities & Goals Setting

II. Priorities & Goals Setting

I. Needs Analysis

What could have been done?

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II. Setting priorities and goals ~ Identifying the development focus ~

Infusion of language arts into the English curriculum at junior secondary in preparation for language arts electives at NSS

language arts

  • Students

  •  Lack motivation & confidence in learning English

  • Poor foundation and weak retention

     Are passive in learning

  •  Lack a chance to use English and lack exposure to English

  • LA

  • Variety of text types (poems, stories, films, dramas) provide interesting contexts and content for learning English

  •  Ss can respond to various forms of text types  increase their opportunity to use English

LA

 Using LA involves a different approach from traditional teaching methods  Ts need to adopt a more learner-centred approach and teach more creatively

  • Teachers

  • Lack the necessary knowledge and skills for teaching LA

  • Some new teachers joining the school

  • School

  • Develop a professional teaching team + collaborative culture

  • Cater for student diversity

LA

 Engage Ts in capacity building (collaborative

lesson planning + peer lesson observation +

courses, workshops and seminars)

LA

 Early preparation for Ss to get them ready for TSA, SBA and NSS

External

 TSA, SBA

 NSS

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There

V. Evaluation

IV. Implemention (Strategies & Resources)

III. Communicationwith parties involved

III. Communication with parties involved

Here

II. Priorities & Goals Setting

I. Needs Analysis

The Planning Process

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C

 C

 C

 A higher chance

of success

ommunication

onsensusbuilding

onflict resolution

III. Communicate with parties involved

  • Michael Fullan

  • In face of changes, all staff need to understand:

  • what changes are being implemented

  • why the changes are being implemented

  • when they are to be implemented

  • how they will impact on the school and on them personally

  • what they will need to do differently – curriculum, pedagogy,

    assessment, knowledge update, learner diversity,

    motivating interests

what

why

when

how

what

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There

V. Evaluation

IV. Implemention (Strategies & Resources)

IV. Implementation (Strategies & Resources)

III. Communicationwith parties involved

Here

II. Priorities & Goals Setting

I. Needs Analysis

The Planning Process

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related focuses

main focus

IV. IMPLEMENT: STRATEGIES

vertical

continuity

Progression in scale

and coverage

Language across the curriculum

English KLA

3-year plan on cross-curricular planning

Short stories

Drama & Films

Popular culture

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IV. Implementation: Strategies

  •  Strategies in alignment with objectives set

  • Teacher:

  • Readiness

  • Deployment

  • Professional development + Resource building

  • Curriculum:

  • Horizontal coherence

  • Vertical continuity

  • Scale:

    time

     People

    coverage

  •  Creation of a language-rich environment

  • Celebration of success

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IV. Implementation: Resources

Financial

Human

Time

Community

Space

Knowing what resources

there are

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V. Evaluation

V. Evaluation

There

IV. Implemention (Strategies & Resources)

IV. Implementation (Strategies & Resources)

III. Communicationwith parties involved

Here

II. Priorities & Goals Setting

I. Needs Analysis

The Planning Process

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V. Evaluation

Infusion of language arts into the English curriculum at junior secondary in preparation for language arts electives at NSS

Story-reading

Story-telling

Reading

Speaking

Reading log record

no. of books read and

their types

  • No. of stories read and varieties (cartoons, comics, fables, fairy tales, plays, etc.)

  • An in Ss’ reading interest

  • Grasping and application of reading strategies

  • Extracting and organizing information and ideas from texts

  • Understanding the use of a range of language features to present themes, characters, experiences and feelings

  • No. of times Ss have to tell stories

  • Pronouncing words clearly and accurately

  • Using a range of delivery techniques to convey meaning (volume, pace, tone, stress, posture, etc.)

  • Expressing information and ideas

  • Using a range of vocabulary and language patterns

  • Using formulaic expressions and a range of strategies

  • Using organizing techniques to convey meaning

Quantity

Quality

  • Questionnaires

  • Interviews

  •  Frequency of library visits

 Note taking

  • Summarizing

  • Mind maps

 Setting

 Rhyme

 Simile

 Repetition

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V. Evaluation

Infusion of language arts into the English curriculum at junior secondary in preparation for language arts electives at NSS

Story-reading

Story-telling

Reading

Speaking

Quantity

 In class

  • In school

  • No. of stories to read and what kind (cartoons, comics, fables, fairy tales, plays, etc.)

  • Grasping and application of reading strategies

  • Extracting and organizing information and ideas from texts

  • Understanding the use of a range of language features to present themes, characters, experiences and feelings

  • Applying a range of reference skills

  • No. of times Ss have to tell stories

  • Pronouncing words clearly and accurately

  • Using a range of delivery techniques to convey meaning

  • Using a range of vocabulary and language patterns

  • Using organizing techniques to convey meaning

Q

u

a

l

i

t

y

  • volume, pace, tone,

    stress

  • eye contact, posture,

    gesture

  • Introducing the topic

  • Sequencing and developing ideas

  • Giving conclusions

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Tips for improving the plan

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Needs analysis

  • Don’t just stock-take what the school does

  • Evaluate the effectiveness of the existing measures

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Example

Evaluation: use of TBL in classroom teaching is effective as Ss can learn in a contextualized and meaningful way. Their results in reading comprehension are better.

Keep

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Example

Evaluation: Many Ss just flip over the pages without reading seriously.

Improve

Regular sharing will be

arranged for Ss to share

what they read

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Example

Students are weak in English as a result of poor foundation. They lack interest/motivation in learning English and so they have little confidence in using English. Students do not have exposure to English outside school as they do not have the family support in learning English.

How weak?

 Half the Ss get under 50% in TSA writing

 Weak in writing

 Weak in generating ideas as seen in Ss’ work and observed by Ts

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Action plan

  • Specific objective

  • Particular focus as an entry point and then develop related focuses

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To improve

students’

writing abilities

Improve the

writing curriculum

Improve the

quality of writing

Improve the

teaching of writing

Objective

To improve students’ English standard

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Measures

Interconnectedness

Develop in Ss a reading habit

Campus TV

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Resources (human)

  • Hire of service to create space for Ts to receive professional training, develop & share expertise

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Example

  • Hiring Drama for Everyone to provide drama training to Ss and to help in the production of an English opera

  • Hiring of service from a tuition school to provide after-school training lessons on TSA and SBA

  •  Subsidizing Ss and Ts attending the 2-week summer English course

  •  Employing two additional TAs:

    • one to look after the English Corner to ensure Ss have someone to seek help from any time they go in

    • one to provide technical assistance to the production of TV programmes for the Campus TV

  •  Employing a native English speaker to help in running the English ECAs and to maximize Ss’ chance of speaking English in school

How about training for Ts?

They need help with teaching methods for using drama to teach English.

Ts can co-plan and co-teach with the drama group in the first 2 yrs, so they can pick up the training from yr 3 onwards.

Sustainability

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Resources (facilities)

  • The deployment requires careful planning to complement and extend classroom teaching

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Example

Buying equipment to set up the Campus TV

 Improving facilities in the English Corner to attract more people to go there, e.g. more board games and computers so that Ss can do self-access learning on phonics, vocabulary building and grammar, etc.

 Buying more English books for the school library and the English class libraries

 Buying an on-line reading programme licence and using an on-line TSA programme

Broadcasting Ss’ drama performances with commentary, extending learning beyond the classroom

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Evaluation

  • Measurable & observable

  • School-based indicators

  • &/or commonly recognized targets

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Example

  • Use of questionnaires and interviews to measure increase in Ss’ interest and confidence in learning English and a decrease in their fear of using English

  • Teachers’ observations as to how much students' attitude towards learning English has improved

  • A proper performance on reading

  • A progressive improvement in speaking as shown in interaction with teachers

  • An increase in the school average in public exam results

  • 70% pass in internal reading assessment

  • 70% of Ss use syntactic clues to decode unknown words (BC descriptor)

  • 10% increase in loan rate of the school library

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Conclusion

What to keep in mind


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Holistic???

“Emphasizing the importance of the whole

and the interdependence of its parts”

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Harry

Potter

news

report

robbery

pollution

Victoria

Harbour

Love

Poem

Interdependence?

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Across the English curriculum

Coherence

Wholes, not holes

Across the school

Across levels

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Holistic planning – the process

The planning process rather than the plan itself

School-based

Review and reflect

the school situation

and the English curriculum

Whole-school approach

Come up with what to do

This thinking process

should be a

thoughtful process!

Inform teachers of other departments and solicit their support

Prepare and equip Ts

Write up an action plan and design assessn tool

Create curriculum space for Ts

Sustainable

Capacity building

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The End

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http://resources.emb.gov.hk/cd/languagesupport

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Curriculum Development

What do we want our students to learn

through English?

How would we like English to support

the learning of other subjects?

What other essential learning experiences

can students gain through learning English?


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Teacher development

  • Are all staff aware of their roles in enhancing students’ English abilities?

  • Is there a capacity building plan to develop both English and non-English teachers?

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School development

  • How can we develop a school environment which facilitates collaboration and communication?

  • How can we deploy the different types of resources effectively?

  • How can we promote a reflective culture for accountability and improvement?

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3-year plan on cross-curricular planning for S1

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Basic thinking and debating skills to be developed in S1

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Library Grant

Upgrading of equipment/facilities

Professional upgrading of Ts

Quality Education Fund

English Extensive Reading Grant

Purchasing more books for students

SCBG

TPPG

Employing temporary staff

Teacher Relief Grant

Capacity Enhancement Grant

Setting up a resource bank

OEBG

Hiring of service from professional groups

Subsidizing student activities and performances

English Enhancement Scheme

Making effective use of resources

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