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HACCP & Hygiene in honey production. Buenos Aires, Concepción del Uruguay, Mendoza October / November 2005. Content of the seminar 1. General requirements of hygiene in honey production 2. HACCP: A brief introduction 3. “Good beekeeping practice” 4. HACCP in honey processing

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HACCP & Hygiene in honey production

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    1. HACCP & Hygiene in honey production Buenos Aires, Concepción del Uruguay, Mendoza October / November 2005 Honey - HACCP

    2. Content of the seminar 1. General requirements of hygiene in honey production 2. HACCP: A brief introduction 3. “Good beekeeping practice” 4. HACCP in honey processing 5. Establishing self-checking mechanisms in honey production according to HACCP principles Honey - HACCP

    3. 1. General requirements of hygiene in honey production Honey - HACCP

    4. 1. Hygiene in honey production is protection against • dirt and diseases • spoiled food • complaints • financial losses Honey - HACCP

    5. Hygiene in honey production is necessary because • legislations (EC Regulations 852/853/854) • consumer protection • product liability • prerequisite program for HACCP under the aspect of food safety (EC-Regulation 178/02) demand it. 1. Honey - HACCP

    6. European Community Legislation • Council Regulations law in every member state • EC Directives shall be adopted in member states no legal force until promulgated by national parliament • Horizontal legislation refers to all food stuffs e.g. for contaminants, additives, labelling Regulation EEC 2377/90 drugs ) Directive 96/23/EC (monitoring)Vertical legislation refers to specific products e.g. Honey Directive 2001/110/EC Honey - HACCP

    7. EC Hygiene Regulations 852/2004 general food hygiene 853/2004 specific requirements for food of animal origin 854/2004 specific procedures for the official control of food of animal origin replacing 16 different Directives Honey - HACCP

    8. What is new ? • primary production is included • all food producing companies must be registered • principle of equivalence for imported food from third countries • HACCP mandatory as well as documentation as self control . Honey - HACCP

    9. 852/04 (9)Community rules should not apply either to primary production for private domestic use, or to the domestic preparation, storage or handling of food for private domestic consumption. .......... Honey - HACCP

    10. HACCP for smaller enterprises852/04 Article 5The HACCP requirements .........They should provide sufficient flexibility to be applicable in all situations including small businesses. In particular it is necessary to recognize that in certain businesses it is not possible to identify critical control points and that in some cases a good hygienic practice can replace the monitoring of critical control points. .......... Honey - HACCP

    11. Basic Regulation Food Safety 178/02e.g.Consumer protectionTraceabilityRapid Alert System Honey - HACCP

    12. Prerequisite for HACCPCleaning and sanitationsPest controlSupplier approvalEmployee trainingPersonal hygieneWater controlMaintenanceProduct specifications Product storage control Honey - HACCP

    13. 1. Hygiene only works for teams, if everyone uses the same set of rules. • validity for everyone • regular reminder • standard information • reliable inspection • mutual confidence Honey - HACCP

    14. 1. Cleaning and sanitation applies to • the working area • the equipment and • the people coming into contact with or close to the product is ESSENTIAL! Honey - HACCP

    15. 1. Washing facilities must be available: - Working rooms must be equipped with: - wash-basin (warm and cold water) - paper towels, liquid soap dispenser - Toilets: - with wash-basin - separate toilet entrance with anteroom Honey - HACCP

    16. 1. Also necessary: - Sufficient air ventilation to prevent condensed water and foreign odors - Adequate temperatures - Artificial lighting with splinter protection  - Dressing-rooms with wardrobe for cleanworking clothes (separated from street clothes)  - No pets - Exclusion of any people suffering from infectious diseases Honey - HACCP

    17. 1. Further prerequisites for working rooms and equipment: Floors: - must be cleaned regularly - made of non-toxic materials - water-proof and hydrophobic  Ceilings: - prevent condensed water - no moulds - no removable fragments (loose paint particles e.g.) Honey - HACCP

    18. 1. Windows: -supplied with gauze or fine mesh (exclusion of pests and insects) Doors: - with plane, hydrophobic and easy-to-clean surface Surfaces, tools and appliances, walls: - made of plane, cleanable and non-toxic materials. - desinfection possible Further prerequisites..., contd. Honey - HACCP

    19. 1. Further prerequisites..., contd. Equipment: - free of corrosion - containers made of food-safe, cleanable and smooth material - can be disinfected easily Suitable cleaning devices - must be easy-to-clean - corrosion-proof - must be kept clean best using a dishwasher Honey - HACCP

    20. 2. HACCP: A brief introduction Honey - HACCP

    21. Definition of HACCP 2. Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point system Honey - HACCP

    22. 2. • HACCP is a preventive safety system that ensures the production of harmless foods • most powerful method to repel and eliminate possible hazards regarding foods • enables applying science-based controls • from raw material to finished products Honey - HACCP

    23. The hazards 2. A biological, chemical or physical agent that is reasonably likely to cause illness or injury in the absence of control. • Biological (e.g. bacteria, virus) • Chemical (e.g. drug residues, cleaning compounds, heavy metals, mycotoxins) • Physical (e.g. wood, metal, stones, glass, hair, jewelry, plastic) Honey - HACCP

    24. HACCP is not a stand-alone system. It works hand in hand with 2. • Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) • Definite responsibility • Documentation Honey - HACCP

    25. Prerequisites to HACCP 2. • Good Processing Practices (GPP) • Good Hygiene Practices (GHP) • Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP) • Appropriate QM systems like ISO series Honey - HACCP

    26. 2. HACCP SOP GPP GHP GMP Honey - HACCP

    27. 2. Theseven principles of HACCP • Realization of a hazard analysis 2. Identifying and setting Critical Control Points (CCPs) • Setting Critical Limit(s) and standards 4. Monitoring of each relevant CCP in honey production 5. Establishing corrective actions 6. Verification of the system 7. Documentation procedures Honey - HACCP

    28. 3. Good Beekeeping Practice Honey - HACCP

    29. Application of good beekeeping practice is required for 3. • working at the beehives • harvesting and transporting honey • extracting honey from supers • storing honey • bottling honey Honey - HACCP

    30. 3. Contaminants from beekeeping Contamination of honey Beekeeping - Acridicides for Varroa control • Antibiotics against diseases e.g. AFB, EFB - Pesticides for wax moth control - Repellents at honey harvest - Other contaminants Environment - Pesticides - Heavy metals - Bacteria • Genetically modified organism (GMO) - Radioactivity Plants, Air, Water Honey - HACCP

    31. CONTAMINANT SOURCE OF CONTAMINATION CONTROL MEASURE 1. Antibiotics in honey Control of bacterial diseases with antibiotics (AFB, EFB, Nosema) 2. Synthetic acaricides in bees Wax, propolis and honey Varroa control with synthetic acaricides 3. Pesticides in honey and beeswax Control of wax moth with pesticides; Chemical control of the Small Hive Beetle Alternative control without the use of antibiotics 4. Repellants for honey harvest Use of synthetic repellents at the honey harvest 5. Toxic metals or organic substances container, drum Alternative Varroa control without synthetic acaricides 6. Wood protectants, Painting Pesticides in wood protectants Use of wood protectants containing no pesticides Wax moth control by alternative measures. Alternative control of the SHB Use of smoker with natural material, “mechanic systems” Use material which do not diffuse contaminants into honey Contaminants from beekeeping and control measures Honey - HACCP

    32. Contamination: Today major factor for quality of honeyIncorrect apicultural practiceincluding hygiene e.g. as prevention of diseasesinstead of using „medicine“ 3. Honey - HACCP

    33. Example Defect Control Measures: 1 Jars and lids before filling Contamination dirt, foreign,l odour, remaining water Hazard of quick deterioration of the content! SEM ! as residue of sealing compound lids Azodicarbonamide Visual and sensory check Another cleaning or destroying of the damaged jars/lids replace with other material 2 Liquefying honey , heat treatment D: Reduction of the enzyme activity; if HMF > 40 mg  Complaints accord. to honey directives C: Temperature, time, quick cooling Tempera-ture, time measuring Use as industrial honey 3. Selected examples for important sources for hazards corresponding to “good beekeepingpractice” Honey - HACCP

    34. Example Defect Control Measures: 3 Straining honey foam Visual control Removal of remaining honey scum by other methods 4 Addition of nuts or dried fruits to cream honey Visual control Dispose of the nuts / dried fruits In the scum there might be wax particles that possibly contain harmful residues or other contaminants Contamination of nuts / dried fruits with mould or pests Honey product is deteriorated Looking for mould, cocoons etc. 3. Honey - HACCP

    35. Example Defect Control Measures 5 Cleaning pollen (blowing out, sorting by hand) Visual control Another cleaning 6 Insufficient drying of Pollen storage Deterioration possible (water content) Storage temperature max. 6 °C (freezer: -18 °C) Continuos tempera-ture control Adjustment of temperature Organic contamination, foreign substances (dust), impurities, etc. Insect bodies or parts of them 3. Honey - HACCP

    36. Example Defect Control Measures 7 Storage of Royal jelly - cooled - frozen Quick deterioration possible Storage temperature max. 4°C (freezer: -18 °C) Continuos tempera-ture control Adjustment of temperature; thawed pollen mustn’t be freeze again 3. Honey - HACCP

    37. 4.HACCP in honey processing - Realization of a hazard analysis - Identifying preventive measures - Identifying and setting critical control points (CCP) - Setting critical limits and standards - Monitoring of each relevant CCP in honey production - Establishing corrective actions - Documentation procedures Honey - HACCP

    38. HACCP Implementation . • Must have Management Commitment • most Food Safety Failures are Management Failures • Must follow the 7 principles to develop HACCP at each Production Plant Honey - HACCP

    39. . HACCP Plan Development I. Assembling the HACCP team Multidisciplinary e.g. beekeepers, co-workers of the collecting stations, analysts, representatives of quality control, engineers 4-6 people Team must be able to evaluate risks and make food safety judgements Honey - HACCP

    40. II. Describing the food and its distribution 4. • Types of raw material e.g. liquid honey, creamed honey, comb honey, bulk honey, wax, pollen, propolis • Intrinsic control factors (moisture, colour) • Process control factors (heating, drying) Honey - HACCP

    41. 4. • Describing intended use and consumers e.g. pharmaceutical industry, food industry, cosmetic industry Consumer all groups of the population Honey - HACCP

    42. 4. IV. Developing a flow diagram • Including all process steps e.g. uncapping, extracting, straining, filtering, homogenising, stirring, packing, storage • Including all inputs e.g. raw material, package material, water, air Honey - HACCP

    43. V. On-site confirmation of the flow diagram • all steps of the operation • all times of production • modify flow diagram as necessary Honey - HACCP

    44. 4. VI. List all potential hazards associated with each step, conduct a hazard analysis and consider any measures to control identified hazards. • likely occurrence of the hazards • expected severity of the hazards Honey - HACCP

    45. 4. Hazards in honey processing Physical Hazards (P) • Insect fragments • Soil • Plant material • Packaging • Glass • Equipment Honey - HACCP

    46. 4. Chemical Hazards (C) • Pesticides and herbicides • Bee medicines, antibiotics • Bee repellents • Coating / varnish of drums Honey - HACCP

    47. 4. Biological Hazards (B) • Pathogens e.g. Clostridium botulinum Honey - HACCP

    48. 4. Hazards may occur as a result of: • an input (object, material) • the process itself • direct or indirect contamination from „other sources“ Honey - HACCP

    49. Inputs & associated hazards 4. Bee Hive material Wax Bee hive sites Drums Glass jars Honey - HACCP

    50. Hazards at different process steps . • Removing the honey combs out off the hives • Holding in hot room • Uncapping • Extracting • Liquefying Honey - HACCP