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GALAXIES. These are galaxy clusters and separate galaxies taken by long-range telescope. The area of the sky covered is less than the diameter of the moon. DISTANCE IN THE UNIVERSE. Light year : ______________________________________ ________________________________________________

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galaxies
GALAXIES

These are galaxy clusters and separate galaxies taken by long-range telescope. The area of the sky covered is less than the diameter of the moon.

slide2

DISTANCE IN THE UNIVERSE

  • Light year: ______________________________________
  • ________________________________________________
  • Light moves at a velocity of about 180,000 miles each second (300,000 km each second). One light year is equal to 5,880,000,000,000 miles
    • Milky Way Galaxy is about 150,000 light-years across.
    • Andromeda Galaxy (one of our nearest neighboring galaxies) is 2.3 million light-years away.
    • Center of the galaxy is approximately 30,000 light years away.

Unit of distance (NOT TIME). It is the

distance that light travels in one year.

slide3

distance light travels in a vacuum in one minute.

  • Light minute – ________________________________________
      • Sun is approximately 8.3 light-minutes away
  • Light second – _________________________________________
      • Moon is approximately 1.3 light-seconds away.

distance light travels in a vacuum in one second

Astronomical Unit: _________________________________

___________________________________________________

It is approximately 93 million miles.

Mercury is about 1/3 of an AU from the Sun.

It is not big enough when we talk about anything

outside of our solar system.

Average distance between the

Earth and the Sun.

slide4

Billions of stars, dust, and gas held

together by gravity

Galaxies: _____________________ _____________________________

______________________________

Edwin Hubble

________________ was an astronomer in the 1920s who gathered many pictures of galaxies

  • noticed they all didn’t look alike
  • decided to classify them by the way they looked into 3 types
    • “E” or _____________________
    • “S” or _____________________
    • “SB” or ____________________

Elliptical

Spiral

Barred Spiral

slide5

HUBBLE TUNING FORK DIAGRAM

http://cse.ssl.berkeley.edu/SegwayEd/lessons/classifying_galaxies/answers.htm

slide6

3 types of galaxies wasn’t enough, so Hubble furthered divided the galaxies by variations within each galaxy type

    • For “E” or ____________________ he looked at the amount of flattening (elongation/roundness)
      • Divided into E0 to E5

Elliptical

Spiral

  • For “S” or ____________________ he looked at how tightly the arms were wound around the bright center
    • Divided into Sa, Sb, or Sc

Barred Spiral

  • For “Sb” or ____________________ he looked at the increased openness of the arms (spiral arms)
    • Divided into SBa, SBb, or SBc
slide7

Elliptical:

  • __________________________;
  • have an elliptical shape that ranges to nearly spherical, and lack spiral arms

most abundant type

http://spitzer.as.utexas.edu/~twitch/M87.jpg

http://zebu.uoregon.edu/~soper/ImGalaxies/m95.gif

slide8

Spiral:

  • typically disk-shaped;
  • Somewhat greater concentration of stars near their centers, often containing _________________
  • __________________________.

arms of extending from their central nucleus

http://cse.ssl.berkeley.edu/bmendez/pics/TRGB/NGC2903.jpg

http://www.nrc-cnrc.gc.ca/education/images/cdnskies/photos/spiral-galaxy.jpg

slide9

Barred Spiral:

  • type of spiral galaxy
  • Has the stars arranged in the__________________, which rotates as a rigid system

shape of a bar

http://www.mindspring.com/~dhanon/ngc7479.jpg

http://nrumiano.free.fr/Images_gx/NGC1365.jpg

slide10

4. Irregular:

  • lack symmetry
  • account for only 10 percent of known galaxies

http://starchild.gsfc.nasa.gov/Images/StarChild/universe_level2/ngc6822.gif

http://library.thinkquest.org/3461/media/irreg_2.jpg

http://www.astro.psu.edu/users/stark/ASTRO11/lab11-12images/irregular/aat064.jpg

slide11

The Milky Way:

Sun

__________is only one of 200 billion stars in the Milky Way

It is a large, disk-shaped, ______________________ about 100,000 light-years wide and about 10,000 light-years thick at the center (central bulge)

There are 3 distinct spiral arms of stars

spiral galaxy

slide12

The sun is positioned on one of these arms about 2/3 of the way from the galactic center, at a distance of 30,000 light-years.

Scientist suspect there is a

super massive ______________ at

the center of the galaxy

It takes over 200 million

years for the sun to revolve

around thegalactic center.

black hole

slide13

II. The Expanding Universe

A. The Big Bang Theory: ____________________________

________________________________________________

________________________________________________

Idea that all matter began in an infinitely small point and exploded out in all directions

slide14

http://www.tech.purdue.edu/Cgt/Courses/cgt211/private/images/projects/archive/3-SciVis/F02/Big-Bang--final.jpghttp://www.tech.purdue.edu/Cgt/Courses/cgt211/private/images/projects/archive/3-SciVis/F02/Big-Bang--final.jpg

slide15

B. Doppler Shift

1. red shift: ______________________________________

_________________________________________________

2. blue shift: _____________________________________

____________________________________________________

Galaxies moving away from us should show a shift in their spectrum toward the red end

Galaxies moving toward us should show a shift toward the blue end of the spectrum

slide16

Since the spectrum for all galaxies show a ________________

from Earth, we assume the universe is ___________________

Red shift

expanding

http://library.thinkquest.org/19537/java/Doppler.html

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