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March 2004 E. Olivier Classification of books Format Size, shape, illustrations, design, paper, binding, typography Toy books, board books, wordless books, picture books, illustrated books, chapter books Genre Literature in which the members share common characteristics

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March 2004

E. Olivier

classification of books
Classification of books
  • Format
    • Size, shape, illustrations, design, paper, binding, typography
    • Toy books, board books, wordless books, picture books, illustrated books, chapter books
  • Genre
    • Literature in which the members share common characteristics
    • Fiction, nonfiction, prose, poetry, realism, fantasy
format ratio of text to illustrations
Format:Ratio of text to illustrations
  • Wordless picture books: no text
  • Picture books: text & pictures tell the story
  • Illustrated books: text gains more importance & illustrations are fewer
  • Junior novels: no illustrations at all
books for the early years toybooks board books
Books for the early years:Toybooks & Board books
  • Toybooks
    • Toylike elements: flaps, levers, fabric, movable parts, pop-ups
    • Very young children
  • Board books
    • Heavy cardboard & laminated
    • Toddlers – licking & chewing, turned easily
  • Value
    • Develop closeness & mutual enjoyment
    • Introduction to the world of literature
books for the early years mother goose
Nursery rhymes

Written by adults for adults

Appeal:

Rhythm

Rhyme

Humor

Participation

Associations with home & pleasant surroundings

Value:

Useful preschool & primary grades

Develop language skills, story sequence & structure

Encourage children to read

Books for the early years:Mother Goose
books for the early years concept books
Books for the early years:Concept books
  • Organize objects/events into categories
  • Data falls into patterns under a general concept/idea
  • Help children to understand concrete & abstract ideas
  • Counting books & alphabet books
  • Value:
    • Introduce & clarify objects
    • Develop vocabulary & language skills
books for emergent readers predictable books
Books for emergent readers:Predictable books
  • Patterns allow the reader to predict what is going to happen next
  • Events are repeated
  • Repetition of language
  • Rhythm & rhyme
  • Value
    • Children say along or “read”
    • Help children to read naturally
books for emergent readers big books
Books for emergent readers:Big books
  • Large format books
  • A group can see the illustrations & text clearly
  • Value
    • Enjoyment
    • Reading instruction
    • Shared reading experiences
    • Participation
    • Reading is placed in a social context
books for emergent readers beginning to read books
Books for emergent readers:Beginning to read books
  • Children are eager to read on their own
  • Easy to read, I can read, Ready to read
  • Fantasy, realistic fiction, folk tales
  • Value
    • Children read new material with a good chance of success
    • Opportunity to figure out the meaning on their own
    • Reinforce the idea of reading
discussion time
Discussion time
  • Visualize your room & home when you were a child. What in your environment contributed to your literary development?
  • Plan a concept book for preschool children
  • Plan a toy book for preschool children
  • What was your favourite rhyme as a child? Motivate.
picture books
Picture books
  • Any book in which the illustrations are as important as the text
  • This includes toy & board books, Mother Goose, concept books & books for beginning readers
  • Types
    • Picture story books
      • Narratives that use text & illustrations
    • Wordless books
      • No or very little text
    • Picture books of poetry and song
      • Narratives in rhyme & rhythm
evaluating picture books
Evaluating picture books
  • Text & illustrations should tell the story
  • Illustrations should be appropriate
  • Clear language
  • Characters should be well developed
  • No stereotyping
  • Accurate setting
  • Not be condescending
  • Size, type, jacket, title page, text should be appropriate
  • Paper & binding of high quality
poetry books
Poetry books
  • Concentrated language
  • Sound, rhyme, rhythm, figurative language, imagery, spacing
  • Poetry books may also be narratives
  • Good poetry has fresh ideas & insight
  • Teachers should consider:
    • Quality
    • Age / background
    • Poetry preferences
    • Cultural diversity
    • Variety in form & content
    • Relationship between children’s experiences & classroom activities
traditional literature folktales fairy tales
Traditional literatureFolktales / Fairy tales
  • Origin: oral tradition
  • Associations with writer: Grimm’s fairy tales
  • Formula
    • Openings : Once upon a time
    • Quick presentation of the problem
    • Uncomplicated characters: good & bad
    • Quick pace of the plot
    • Inevitable fate of the villains
  • Value
    • Strengthens the imagination
    • Simplifies moral questions
    • It can promote cultural & global awareness
traditional literature fables
Traditional literature Fables
  • Stories usually about animals that teach a lesson
  • Stories are short but the meaning complex
  • One-line moral at the end
  • Aesop’s tales well-known
  • Ages 8 – 9 years old
  • Value
    • Quick retellings & dramatization
    • Cooperative learning
traditional literature myths
Traditional literature Myths
  • Longer stories that explain the origins of the earth
  • Focus: gods, ancient heroes, ancestors and natural phenomena
  • Setting: home of the gods
traditional literature legends
Traditional literature Legends
  • Focus on people that are extraordinary
  • Based on the lives of real /supposedly real people
  • King Arthur
  • Picture books reflects life in medieval times
fantasy
Fantasy
  • Elements do not exist outside the imagination
  • Categories
    • Talking toys – Winnie the Pooh
    • Personified animals
    • Imaginary animals – dragons
    • Tiny people – elves
    • Curious occurrences – time travel
    • Science fiction – space travel
  • Value
    • Helps children understand real life
evaluating fantasy
Evaluating fantasy
  • The fantastic element must be believable
  • Fantasy must be central to the story
  • Details must be consistent with the rest of the story
  • Main characters must be plausible & believable
realistic fiction
Realistic fiction
  • Based on what happened or could have happened
  • Common themes:
    • Common experiences – everyday events
    • Personal growth – physical or emotional maturing
    • Relationships with family or friends
    • Problems – death
    • Life in a pluralistic society – other countries
categories of realistic fiction
Categories of realistic fiction
  • Sports stories
  • Animal stories
  • Mysteries – action and suspense
  • Humorous stories
  • Good realistic fiction
    • Accurate setting
    • Avoids clichés in content
    • Should avoid didacticism
    • Consistent style
  • Value
    • Helps children see similarities & differences among peoples
informational books
Informational books
  • More nonfiction books than any other writing
  • Present facts, concepts & generalizations about a topic
  • Evaluating non-fiction
    • Accuracy of facts
    • Organization – logical
    • Writing style – interesting & understandable
    • Illustrations – accurate & enhance
  • Value:
    • Broadens children’s knowledge
discussion time23
Discussion time
  • What was your favourite folktale and why?
  • Read and compare the first line in several folktales. Which line is the most effective?
  • Select a picture book and evaluate it according to the criteria
  • Select a book of animal fantasy and one in which animals are portrayed realistically. Which do you prefer and why?
  • Read a fantasy book and evaluate it according to the criteria
bibliography
Bibliography
  • Aesopus, Paxton, T. & Rayevsky, R. 1993. Birds of a feather and other Aesop’s fables. New York : Morrow Junior books [J 398.245 AESO].
  • Bunting, E. 1994. Smoky night. San Diego Harcourt Brace & Co [J 823 BUNT].
  • By die skool. 1993. Boleswa: Macmillan [439.368 KOM]. Carle, E. 1987. Papa, please get the moon for me. London : Hodder and Stoughton [J 823 CARL].
  • Corbett, G. 1984. Working in the garden. London: Walker House [J 428.12 COR]. De Paola, T. 1985. Tomie de Paola’s Mother Goose. London: Methuen Children’s Books [FJ 398.9 MOT].
  • Dodd, H. & Iversen, D. 1999. Hercules and other Greek legends. Auckland : Lands End [428.6 WILD].
  • Dupasquier, P. 1993. Follow that chimp. London : Walker Books [J 823.06 DUPA].Fowler, R. 1982. ‘n Muis in die huis. Pretoria: JP van der Walt.
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Glazer, J.I. 1997. Introduction to children’s literature. Prentice Hall: Macmillan.Hawkins, C. 1983. What's the time, Mr Wolf. Johannesburg: William Heinemann [J 529.7 HAW].
  • Hughes, M. 1997. Minibeast encyclopedia. Oxford : Heinemann [Pr 595.7 HUGH].
  • Kleynhans, A. & Kincaid, E. 1984. Sneeuwitjie – Ek lees lekker. Kaapstad: Human & Rossouw [J 398.21 GRI].
  • Komnick, G. 1974. Botter aas. Kaapstad : Malherbe [J 839.363 LIND].
  • Kruger, J.A. 1991. Kinderkeur: ‘n gids tot bekroonde Suid-Afrikaanse kleuter-, kinder- en jeugboeke sedert 1989. Pretoria: UNISA [028.5079 KRU].
  • Lewis, S. 1987. One-minute Greek myths. New York: Doubleday [K 398.45 LEW].
  • Loewen, V.H. & Pearson, D. 1997. The best book for Terry Lee. Auckland : Shortland Publications [Pr 823 BEST].
  • Lohann, C. 1986. Kinderlektuur. Pretoria: HAUM.
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Pienkowski, J. 1992. Phone book. London : Orchard Books [J 823 PIEN].
  • Rousseau, L. and Harries, K. 1976. Herelandgoed. Kaapstad: Human & Rousseau [EDUJ 839.363 ROUSSEAU].
  • Sendak, M. 1967. Wildekanis land. Kaapstad : HAUM [EDUJ 839.363 SENDAK].
  • Snyman, L. 1983. Die kind se literatuur. Durbanville : Kinderpers.
  • Small, T. 1991. The legend of William Tell. New York: Bantam [K 398.2 SMA].
  • Stock, C. 1991. Armien gaan see toe. Kaapstad : Human & Rousseau [J 839.363 STOC].
  • Three little pigs. 1983. Brimax Story Time Board Books [J 398.21 JAC].
  • Vels, V. 1999. Liewe Heksie en die rekenaar en ander nuwe Liewe Heksie-stories. Kaapstad : Human en Rousseau [J 839.363 VELS]