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A Great Lakes Primer. Great Lakes Basin. Great Lakes Profile. Morphometry and Development. Phosphorus and Eutrophication. Trophic State Index. Trophic State Index. Trophic State Index. Trophic State Index. Trophic State Index. Trophic State Index. Toxic Substances. Invasive Species.

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A Great Lakes Primer

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Invasive Species

183 non-indigenous species in the Great Lakes (NOAA)


Areas of Concern


Areas of Concern (AOCs): severely degraded sites with impaired beneficial use

Remedial Action Plans (RAPs): specify problems and methods of correcting them

Lakewide Management Plans (LaMPs): plan to assess, restore, and protect ecosystem health


Areas of Concern

Waukegan Harbor (IL)


Outboard Marine Corporation

Presque Isle Bay (PA)

PAHs, heavy metals

Rouge River (MI)

Urban storm water discharges, CSOs,

nonpoint source pollution, and

municipal and industrial discharges


From the Literature – Lake Superior

Toxaphene was a popular replacement for DDT until being banned in 1982. Here, atmospheric sampling and back-trajectory analysis are applied to quantify rates of deposition and sources for Lake Superior.


From the Literature – Lake Michigan

Beach closing due to fecal contamination are closely associated with public perception of water quality


From the Literature – Lake Huron

Numbers on x-axis refer to depth zones: 1 = shallow,

2 = intermediate, 3 = deep


From the Literature – Lake Erie

Black area is region of anoxia.

Number at bottom is depletion rate.


From the Literature – Lake Ontario

Mirex is an organic chemical used as a fire retardant and insecticide (fire ants). It has a long half-life. It was found to be present in fish in northern Lake Ontario, but no source was identified.