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You Are What You Eat Mary Brewer RD Carilion Roanoke Memorial Hospital. Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2005. The Dietary Guidelines for Americans , 2005, gives science-based advice on food and physical activity choices for health.

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you are what you eat mary brewer rd carilion roanoke memorial hospital
You Are What You Eat

Mary Brewer RD

Carilion Roanoke Memorial Hospital

dietary guidelines for americans 2005
Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2005
  • The Dietary Guidelines for Americans, 2005, gives science-based advice on food and physical activity choices for health.

What is a "Healthy Diet"?The Dietary Guidelines describe a healthy diet as one that

        • Emphasizes fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and fat-free or low-fat milk and milk products;
        • Includes lean meats, poultry, fish, beans, eggs, and nuts; and
        • Is low in saturated fats, trans fats, cholesterol, salt (sodium), and added sugars.
weight loss it all adds up
Weight Loss : It All Adds Up
  • Q: How much do Americans spend on weight-loss products and services every year?
weight loss it all adds up10
Weight Loss : It All Adds Up
  • A: $33 billion.

(Source: Weight Control Information Network: National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases)

(This figure represents consumer dollars spent in the early 1990’s on all efforts at weight loss or weight maintenance including low-calorie foods, artificially sweetened products such as diet sodas, and memberships to commercial weight-loss centers.)

weight loss it all adds up11
Weight Loss : It All Adds Up
  • How many adults are overweight?
  • A: Nearly two-thirds of U.S. adults are overweight (BMI > 25).
weight loss it all adds up12
Weight Loss : It All Adds Up
  • As many as 25% of men and 40% of all American women are on a diet at any given time.
weight loss it all adds up13
Weight Loss: It All Adds Up

A 24-ounce regular soft drink has 280 calories.

If you cut one of those from your diet every day and didn’t change anything else, you’d lose 30 pounds in a year.

bad news what you don t know can hurt you
Bad News: What You Don’t Know Can Hurt You

Hardee’s Sausage Biscuit

550 calories

36 grams fat

1,400 mg Na

McDonald’s Double Quarter Pounder w/cheese

770 calories

47 grams fat

1,440 mg Na

McDonald’s Crispy Chicken Caesar Salad

310 calories (WITHOUT dressing)

16 grams fat

890 mg Na

Burger King Enormous Omelet Sandwich

740 Calories

46 grams fat

1,950 mg Na

Burger King Whopper with Cheese

800 calories

49 grams fat

1,450 mg Na

weight loss it all adds up15
Weight Loss: It All Adds Up
  • Weight Watchers
weight loss it all adds up16
Weight Loss: It All Adds Up
  • Overeaters Anonymous,
  • This series of questions may help you determine if you are a compulsive overeater. Many members of Overeaters Anonymous have found that they have answered yes to many of these questions.

1. Do you eat when you're not hungry? 2. Do you go on eating binges for no apparent reason? 3. Do you have feelings of guilt and remorse after overeating? 4. Do you give too much time and thought to food? 5. Do you look forward with pleasure and anticipation to the time when you can eat alone? 6. Do you plan these secret binges ahead of time? 7. Do you eat sensibly before others and make up for it alone? 8. Is your weight affecting the way you live your life? 9. Have you tried to diet for a week (or longer), only to fall short of your goal? 10. .Do you resent others telling you to "use a little willpower" to stop overeating? 11. Despite evidence to the contrary, have you continued to assert that you can diet "on your own“ whenever you wish? 12. Do you crave to eat at a definite time, day or night, other than mealtime? 13. Do you eat to escape from worries or trouble? 14. Have you ever been treated for obesity or a food-related condition? 15. Does your eating behavior make you or others unhappy?


African Americans have the highest rate of high blood pressure in the world.

    • Hypertension affects 1 of every 3 African Americans.
    • 36 percent of black men aged 20 and older have high blood pressure, compared to 25 percent of white men.
    • Black men develop hypertension
    • at an earlier age than white men.


  • According to the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) trial sponsored by NHLBI
    • when people with high blood pressure ate 8 to 10 servings of fruits and vegetables a day and 2 to 3 servings of low-fat dairy foods as part of a diet low in saturated fat and cholesterol, they lowered their blood pressure within a month.
  • African American men who followed the DASH eating plan had even greater reductions in blood pressure than white men who did the same.
  • The DASH eating plan includes 8 to 10 servings of fruits and vegetables a day, 2 to 3 servings of low-fat dairy foods, moderate amounts of whole grains, poultry, fish, and nuts and only very small amounts of fat, red meat, sweets and sweetened beverages.
  • Type II diabetes is almost totally preventable.
  • 6th leading cause of death
  • 6 million people have diabetes and don’t know it.
  • 21% of Americans over 60 have diabetes.
  • Rate Your Plate: American Diabetes Association,
  • About one-fourth of your plate should be filled with grains or starchy foods such as rice, pasta, potatoes, corn, or peas.
  • Another fourth should be protein -- foods like meat, fish, poultry, or tofu.
  • Fifty percent can be non-starchy vegetables like broccoli, carrots, cucumbers, salad, tomatoes, and cauliflower.
  • Then, add a glass of non-fat milk and a small roll or piece of fruit and you are ready to eat!
heart disease
Heart Disease
  • Heart disease is the leading cause of death for men and women in the United States.
  • American Heart Association,
heart disease24
Heart Disease
  • Should you be concerned about your blood cholesterol number?
  • YES! High blood cholesterol increases your chances for coronary heart disease. Coronary heart disease is a disease of the blood vessels of the heart that causes a heart attack.
  • What are good and bad cholesterol?
  • HDL "good cholesterol" helps clean fat and cholesterol from arteries, carrying it to the liver for removal from the body. LDL "bad cholesterol" deposits cholesterol in your arteries and causes them to become clogged.
  • Total cholesterol should be <200
  • HDL should be >35
  • LDL should be <130
cancer risk
Cancer Risk
  • An expert report, Food, Nutrition and the Prevention of Cancer: a Global Perspective, reviewed over 4,500 world-wide research studies.
  • It found that if people increased their fruit and vegetable consumption to at least five servings a day, cancer rates could be reduced by more than 20 percent.
cancer risk26
Cancer Risk
  • People whose diets are rich in fruits and vegetables (5 to 9 servings a day) have a lower risk of getting cancers of the lung, mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, colon, and rectum. They are also less likely to get cancers of the breast, pancreas, ovaries, larynx, and bladder.
cancer risk27
Cancer Risk
  • There is no specific fruit or vegetable responsible for reducing cancer risk; instead, research shows that it is the regular consumption of a variety of fruits and vegetables that reduces risk.
  • BK Veggie
  • Supermarket Burgers
  • Tofu
  • Recipes
  • Experiment!
plant based diets
Plant-Based Diets

Many recipes and comments by people who have tried them, easily organized into categories.


Reliable vegetarian nutrition information by Registered Dietitians and Ph.Ds.


Thousands of low-fat and fat-free recipes.

  • Free Brochures
  • Hundreds of recipes
grain serving sizes
Grain Serving Sizes
  • A serving of cooked pasta is 1/2 cup or about the size of an ice-cream scoop. Serving sizes for other grains include:
  • FoodServing size
  • Cooked rice or cereal = 1/2 cup
  • Ready-to-eat cereal = 1 ounce or a large handful
  • Whole-wheat bread = 1 slice
  • English muffin = 1/2
fruit serving sizes
Fruit Serving Sizes
  • Everyday equivalents can help you judge serving sizes. For example, one medium apple — about the size of a tennis ball — equals one serving of fruit. Other serving sizes:
  • FoodServing size
  • Orange, pear or banana = 1 medium
  • Chopped, cooked or canned = 1/2 cup
  • 100 percent fruit juice = 3/4 cup
vegetable serving sizes
Vegetable Serving Sizes
  • Until you're comfortable judging serving sizes, you may need to use measuring cups and spoons. A half cup of cooked carrots, for example, equals one serving. Here are the recommended serving sizes for other vegetables:
  • FoodServing size
  • Raw leafy vegetables =1 cup or about the size of your fist
  • Chopped, cooked or canned =1/2 cup
  • 100 percent vegetable juice =3/4 cup
dairy serving sizes
Dairy Serving Sizes
  • Serving sizes of dairy products may be smaller than you think. For example, one serving of cheddar cheese is 1 1/2 ounces or about the size of two dominoes. Here are serving sizes for other dairy products:
  • FoodServing size
  • Low-fat or nonfat milk or yogurt =1 cup
  • Low-fat natural cheese, such as Swiss or Colby =1 1/2 ounces
  • Low-fat processed cheese, such as American =2 ounces

Note: Calcium-fortified orange juice and soy milk are excellent non-dairy sources of calcium.

meat and bean serving sizes
Meat and Bean Serving Sizes
  • A serving of chicken — 2 to 3 ounces — is about the size of a deck of cards.

FoodServing size

  • Cooked skinless poultry, seafood or lean meat =2 to 3 ounces
  • You can substitute any of the following foods for 1 ounce of meat:
  • Cooked legumes or dried beans =1/2 cup or about the size of

an ice cream scoop

  • Tofu = 1/2 cup
  • Egg = 1 large
  • Peanut butter =2 tablespoons
  • Nuts = 1/3 cup
10 tips to help you eat your vegetables
10 Tips To Help You Eat Your Vegetables
  • Buy fresh vegetables in season. They cost less and are likely to be at their peak flavor.
  • Think frozen!
  • Buy vegetables that are easy to prepare. Pick up pre-washed bags of salad greens and add baby carrots or grape tomatoes for an easy salad.
  • Baby carrots or celery sticks make quick snacks.
  • Shred carrots or zucchini into meatloaf, casseroles, quick breads, and muffins.
10 tips to help you eat your vegetables37
10 Tips To Help You Eat Your Vegetables

6. Include a green salad with dinner every night. Add shredded red cabbage, carrots or spinach for color.

7. Include chopped vegetables in pasta sauce or lasagna.

8. Order a veggie pizza with toppings like mushrooms, green peppers, and onions, and ask for extra veggies.

9. Include cooked dry beans or peas in flavorful mixed dishes, such as chili or minestrone soup.

10. Grill vegetable kabobs as part of a barbecue meal. Try tomatoes, mushrooms, green peppers, and onions.

top tips for eating out
Top Tips for Eating Out
  • Ask for just half the cheese when you order pizza. Skip it when you order burritos or tacos; you won’t even notice.
  • Don’t forget the vegetables or even fruit (pineapple) on your pizza. Skip the sausage, pepperoni and ground beef; go for chicken, Canadian bacon or lean ham.
  • Ask for agrilled chicken sandwich with lowfat or fat-free mayo.
top tips for eating out39
Top Tips for Eating Out
  • Take half or more of your meal home. Ask for your half-meal to be boxed up before you begin eating so you will not be tempted to eat more than you should.
  • Stop eating when you begin to feel full. Instead, focus on enjoying the setting, the conversation, and your friends or family.
  • Avoid large beverages, such as "supersized" or “Big Gulps.” Order the small size, or drink water with a slice of lemon.
top tips for eating out40
Top Tips for Eating Out
  • Share your meal, or order an appetizer instead.
  • If you stop at a fast food restaurant, choose one that serves salads or baked potatoes. Order the small burger with lettuce and tomato. Have water or nonfat milk with your meal instead of a soft drink. If you want french fries, order the small size.
  • Request all dressings, condiments and sauces on the side.
how to read a food label
How To Read A Food Label
  • The portion size that you are used to eating may be equal to two or three standard servings. Take a look at this Nutrition Facts label for macaroni & cheese. The serving size is one cup.
  • To see how many servings a package contains, check the "servings per container" listed on the Nutrition Facts label. You may be surprised to find that small containers often have more than one serving inside.
  • Because this box contains two servings, if you ate the whole package, you would be eating two cups, or double the amount of calories, fat, etc. on the side of the box.
  • Learning to recognize standard serving sizes can help you judge how much you are eating. When cooking for yourself, use measuring cups and spoons to measure your usual food portions and compare them to standard serving sizes from Nutrition Facts labels for a week or so. Put the measured food on a plate before you start eating. This will help you see what one standard serving of a food looks like compared to how much you normally eat.
all in moderation
All in Moderation
  • By avoiding large portions of high-calorie foods and eating more low-calorie foods, such as fruits and vegetables, you get the nutrients you need and reduce the number of calories you consume.