The EU as an international actor. INS 593-391 The European Union and The World Joaquín Roy February 2005. Is there a EU Foreign Policy? External Relations of a sui generis entity. Free Trade Area Customs Union Common Market Economic Union Political Union
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The EU as an international actor INS 593-391 The European Union and The World JoaquínRoy February 2005
Is there a EU Foreign Policy? External Relations of a sui generis entity • Free Trade Area • Customs Union • Common Market • Economic Union • Political Union • Theoretically the EU is moving forward to Political Union
Common Security and Foreign Policy • History of External (Non-Trade) Relations • 1950s-60s: largely failed • 1970s: European Political Cooperation • EPC outside Community institutions • foreign ministers meetings & contacts • EPC modest success • excludes money & military matters • foreign ministries lobby for it • positions against US - Mideast
Common Security and Foreign Policy • Problems (1990s) • German power itself (Balkans etc.) • French reservations • Limited QMV • WEU independent of NATO • Britain • resists supranational element • resists undermining NATO • small states: also fear alienating US
Common Security and Foreign Policy • Bosnia Crisis (1993-95) • CFSP - no common line, divisions • WEU - sanctions monitoring, some peackeeping • Amsterdam Treaty (1996-97) • CFSP: limited QMV & Mr PESC Javier Solana High Representative for the CFSP
European Security and Defense Policy • EU-NATO • Response Force/Rapid Reaction Force • Berlin Plus • Military and Police Operations • Allied Harmony-Concordia/Proxima • Bosnia, moving forward? • Solana and European Security Strategy • Strategic Culture • A strategy with no muscle?
European Commission External Relations Benita Ferrero External Relations and European Neighborhood Policy Peter Mandelson, External Trade Jose Manuel Barroso Chair Olli Rehn Enlargement Louis Michel Humanitarian Aid and Development Policy.
External Relations of the Barroso Commission • Three key basic propositions on the EU’s role in the emerging world order. • The EU is a global player; • It pursues a specific foreign policy philosophy which one could term “effective multilateralism” • Thanks to its specific nature, the Union disposes of a wide range of foreign policy instruments which are particularly suited to respond to today's challenges. II. The Institutions of the European Union
External Service The Delegations of the External Service, although hierarchically a part of the Commission structure, in practice serve European Union interests as a whole in 123 countries throughout the world. There are also five centres (in Geneva, New York, Paris, Rome and Vienna) of international organizations (OECD, OSCE, UN and WTO) They aim to: • presenting, explaining and implementing EU policy; • analyzing and reporting on the policies and developments of the countries to which they are accredited ; and • conducting negotiations in accordance with a given mandate. The Delegations play a key role in the implementation of external assistance. Since 2000, they are closely involved in programming and managing projects directly from start to finish, in close contact with Europe Aid and host country authorities, within the framework of rules set in Brussels.
External Service • Delegations also play an increasing role in the conduct of the CFSP, providing regular political analysis, conducting evaluations jointly with Member State Embassies and contributing to the policy making process. • They provide support and assistance as necessary to the other institutions and actors of the EU, including: • the High representative of CFSP • the European Parliament • the EU Presidency. EU Ambassador to the US and Head of Delegation, John Bruton, and President Bush
European Parliament • The Council consults Parliament on major foreign policy decisions. • Parliament puts questions to the Council and can make recommendations to it. • Parliament is in regular contact with the Union's High Representative for the Common Foreign and Security Policy. • Any accession of a State to the European Union and most international agreements require the approval of the European Parliament. Josep Borrell, President of the European Parliament, and Commissioner Benita Ferrero-Waldner
European Parliament • In its parliamentary sittings international events and the issue of human rights are the subject of regular debates and resolutions relating to foreign policy. • In the case of an international agreement or an accession treaty the European Parliament must be kept fully informed of the mandate and the state of negotiations. • The European Parliament uses its power of approval as one way of promoting respect for fundamental rights. It has, for example, rejected a series of financial protocols with certain non-member countries on human rights grounds, forcing those countries to release political prisoners or to subscribe to international undertakings on human rights protection.
European Parliament Thanks to the European Parliament the Cotonou Convention, which links the European Union to 79 African, Caribbean and Pacific States (ACP) now includes a 'democracy clause' i. e. the option to suspend aid to states guilty of serious human rights violations. In 1988 Parliament established the Sakharov Prize, which is awarded annually to one or more individuals or a group who have distinguished themselves in the struggle for human rights. Koffi Annan (2003) and Osvaldo Payá (2002), awarded with the Sakharov Prize
The Constitution and External Relations EUROPEAN COUNCIL PRESIDENT BROAD GUIDELINES Foreign Affairs Minister Vice-President of the Commission President of Council Foreign Affairs EUROPEAN COMMISSION PRESIDENT COUNCIL PRESIDENT EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT PRESIDENT LEGISLATIVE FUNCTION BUDGETARY FUCNTION
The Constitution and External Relations • Role of the Union on the international scene • One Foreign Affairs Minister / Vice-President of the Commission • Decisions taken unanimously, sometimes by qualified majority • Member States can go further if they wish to • Defence • European Armaments, Research and Military Capabilities Agency • Joint disarmament operations • Solidarity : terrorist attack on a Member State, or natural disaster, or disaster having a human origin • Member States can go further if they wish to