telephone help line program for pathological gambling a preliminary study in california l.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Telephone Help-line Program for Pathological Gambling: A Preliminary Study in California PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Telephone Help-line Program for Pathological Gambling: A Preliminary Study in California

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 20

Telephone Help-line Program for Pathological Gambling: A Preliminary Study in California - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 310 Views
  • Uploaded on

Telephone Help-line Program for Pathological Gambling: A Preliminary Study in California . UCLA Gambling Studies Program. Overview. Background Conceptual framework Research questions and hypotheses Methods Results Implications Limitations Conclusion. Background: Definition and Criteria.

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Telephone Help-line Program for Pathological Gambling: A Preliminary Study in California' - Roberta


Download Now An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
telephone help line program for pathological gambling a preliminary study in california

Telephone Help-line Program for Pathological Gambling:A Preliminary Study in California

UCLA Gambling Studies Program

overview
Overview
  • Background
  • Conceptual framework
  • Research questions and hypotheses
  • Methods
  • Results
  • Implications
  • Limitations
  • Conclusion
background definition and criteria
Background: Definition and Criteria

Social Gambling

Problem Gambling

  • NODS Score: 3 – 4
  • Gambling that significantly interferes with a person’s life

Pathological Gambling

  • NODS Score: 5-10
  • The most severe form of problem gambling
  • Mental Health Disorder
background prevalence
Background: Prevalence

Prevalence in California:

  • Pathological gambling (PaG): 1.5% (296,500 – 490,000)
  • Problem gambling (PrG): 2.2%(450,000 -713,400)
  • At-risk gambling: 9.5% (2.2 million – 2.7 million)

Risk Factors:

  • gender (males)
  • ethnicity (African-Americans)
  • age (>65 years)
  • employment (unemployed and disabled)
background related issues
Background: Related Issues

Smoking

¼ PaGs and PrGs smoke daily

Substance abuse

alcohol, marijuana, cocaine, etc.

Psychological difficulties

anxiety, depression, antisocial personality disorder etc.

Suicidal ideation

Stress-related physical impairment

hypertension, heart disease, etc.

Criminal behavior

background services
Background: Services

Barriers to seeking help

Embarrassment and denial of the gambling issues; and mistrust of the effectiveness of treatments

⇨National estimate: < 3% of PrGs seek treatment

A 24-hour, toll-free service for PrGs and PaGs is available

⇨4/5 CA adults (2/3 PrGs, 1/2PaGs) are not aware of this service

background chance to change c2c
Background: “Chance to Change (C2C)”

Bensinger DuPont and Associates (BDA) implemented the C2C program

  • BDA provides substance abuse intervention and prevention
  • BDA’s telephone counselors are trained and certified gambling counselors
    • Masters level degree
    • Utilize standardized technique
background chance to change c2c8
Background: “Chance to Change (C2C)”

Program Components:

- Initial Session: Baseline Assessment

- Session 1 (W1): Assign homework

- Session 2 (W2): Support client’s plan of change, educate about course of pathological gambling

- Session 3 (W4 ): Motivate client for recovery

- Session 4 (W8): Motivate client for recovery

- Session 5 (W12): Review client’s progress, end session

conceptual framework
The Transtheoretical ModelConceptual Framework

Precontenmplation :

No intention to quit gambling within the next 6 months

Conscious raising

Dramatic Relief

Environmental reevaluation

The Transtheoretical Model has been successfully applied to motivate cessation of gambling among PaGs.

(Petty, 2005)

Contemplation:

Intention to quit gambling within the next 6 months

Self-reevaluation

Preparation:

Intention to quit gambling within the next 30 days and has taken some behavioral steps in this direction

Self-liberation

Target Population

Intervention

Action:

Has quitted gambling for less than 6 months

Contingent management

Helping relationship

Counter-conditioning

Situational control

Maintenance:

Has quitted gambling behavior for more than 6 months

research question hypothesis
Research Question & Hypothesis

Research Question:

Are pathological gamblers who completed the C2C likely to cease or reduce the frequency of gambling?

Hypotheses:

  • Participants who completed C2C program will have a significantly lower NODS score than their counterparts.
  • The average number of hours spent gambling a week by participants will be significantly lower at week 8 and 12 than at baseline.
  • The average amount of money allotted for gambling by participants will be significantly lower at weeks 8 and 12 than at baseline.
methods sampling
Methods: Sampling
  • Inclusion Criteria

- 18 years old or older

- Ability to read and write English at an 8th grade level

- Meet DSM-IV criteria for pathological gambling

(NODS score >5)

- Have gambled within 4 weeks of screening

- Have a reliable telephone number

  • Exclusion Criteria

- Currently enrolled in a gambling treatment program

- Meet criteria for clinically significant psychiatric disorder that would impair judgment or medical decision-making capacity

methods variables
Methods: Variables
  • Dependent Variables (outcomes)

- NODS score

- Hours of gambling (W12)

- Amount of money allotted for gambling (W12)

  • Independent Variables (predictors)

- Demographics

- Gambling preference

- Frequency, hours of gambling

- Family gambling history

- Reason of gambling

- Smoking, drinking habit

- Self-rated health and QOL

- First gambling age

- Problem gambling starting age

- Self goal (reduce/quit)

- Money started (W12)

- gambling wins and loses

results sample demographics
Attrition Rate: 45.45%

Initial Interview: 33/109

W12: 18/33

N=18,

Age: M=42.83,

SD=11.57, Range= 27-65

Gender ratio:

Male=50%, Female: 50%

Primary Gambling Preference:

- Nevada Casinos => 1 (5.6%)

- Indian Casinos => 15 (83.3%)

- Card Rooms => 1 (5.6%)

- Sports betting => 1 (5.6%)

Race/Ethnicity:

- African American => 1 (5.6%)

- Asian American => 3 (16.7%)

- Caucasian => 6 (33.3%)

- Latino => 6 (33.3%)

- Other => 2 (11.1%)

Results: Sample Demographics
results cont d
Results (cont’d)

Table 1. Comparison of Initial and 12-week Assessment

*Statistically significant (p < .05) as tested by Paired-sample t-test

**Statistically significant (p < .001) as tested by Paired-sample t-test

implications
Implications

This study demonstrated that offering telephone help-line program may help pathological gamblers, who are in the Preparation or Action stages of change, to reduce or maintain cessation of gambling in terms ofNODS score and the number of hours spent gambling.

limitations future directions
Limitations/ Future Directions
  • Sample size is small
  • Non-randomized sample
  • No control group

- Does not necessarily represent PrGs

- Randomized controlled studies are needed

  • Self-report biases

- Need to evaluate the accuracy of self-report

limitations future directions17
Limitations/ Future Directions
  • Some participants were already motivated to take action to change their pathological gambling behavior at the initial point
  • Limited to a performance over a 3 month period

- Other factors may affect their behavior (e.g. relapse due to ambivalent characteristics of gambling addiction)

  • High attrition rate
acknowledgements
Acknowledgements

We, the UCLA Gambling Studies Program, gratefully acknowledge the support of this study by Ms.Isabelle Duguay fromBensinger DuPont and Associates.

This program was funded by the California Alcohol and Drug Programs, Office of Problem Gambling.

reference
Reference
  • California Department of Alcohol and Drug Programs Office of Problem and Pathological Gambling. (2006). 2006 California Problem Gambling Prevalence Survey . Retrieved at April 7, 2008, from http://www.adp.ca.gov/opg/pdf/CA_Problem_Gambling_Prevalence _ Survey-Final_Report.pdf
  • Desai, R. &Potenza, M. (2008). Gender differences in the associations between past-year gambling problems and psychiatric disorders. Social psychiatry and psychiatric epidemiology. 43(3), 173-183.
  • Pantalon, M. V., Maciejewski, P. K., Desai, R. A. & Potenza, M. N.  (2007). Excitement-seeking gambling in a nationally representative sample of recreational gamblers. Journal of Gambling Studies. 24(1), 63-78.
  • Petty, N.M. (2005). Stages of change in treatment-seeking pathological gamblers. Journal of Consulting & Clinical Psychology. 73 (2), 312-322.
  • Shaffer, H. J. & Korn, D. A. (2002). Gambling and related mental disorders: a public health analysis. Annual review of public health. 23, 171 -212.
  • Wood, R. T. A. & Griffiths, M. D. (2007). A qualitative investigation of problem gambling as an escape-based coping strategy. Psychology & Psychotherapy: Theory, Research & Practice.

(80)1, 107-125.

thanks for listening
Thanks for listening!

Akiko Sato

akisato@ucla.edu