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Rock Structures. Mt. St. Helens, October 2004. Igneous Structures: Plutons, Volcanoes, & Lava Flows (Oh, My!). Plutons. Name this Igneous Feature…. Igneous Dike. Plutonic Structures. Xenoliths. Source: William E. Ferguson. Why do we find Plutons at the Surface?. Uplift & Erosion.

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Rock structures l.jpg

Rock Structures

Mt. St. Helens, October 2004

Igneous structures plutons volcanoes lava flows oh my l.jpg
Igneous Structures:Plutons, Volcanoes, & Lava Flows (Oh, My!)

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Plutonic Structures


Source:William E. Ferguson

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Why do we find Plutons at the Surface?

Uplift & Erosion

Sierra Nevada Mountains Batholith, California

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Volcanic Structures




Mafic eruptions passive lava flows l.jpg
Mafic Eruptions:Passive Lava Flows

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Felsic Eruptions:Explosive Ash and Thick Lava Flows

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Ash-Flow Caldera:Crater Lake, Oregon

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Bedding (1-300 cm)


Laminations (<1 cm)

Massive Strata (>300 cm)

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Inter-Bed Structures(within strata)

  • Graded Beds

  • Cross Beds

  • Dropstones

Outcrop of turbidites, Carboniferous, northwestern China.

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Graded BedsDeath Valley, CA

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Cross BedsZion National Park, UT

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Intra-Bed Structures(on the surface of strata)

  • Ripple Marks

  • Mudcracks

  • Raindrop Impressions

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MudcracksGlacier National Park, MT

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Trace Fossils


Miocene Mammal (WA)

Worm Burrows: Middle Silurian, Grimsby Formation, Hamilton, Ontario