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Rice & Other Commodities of the Atlantic World. By: Elise Stevens Wilson. Triangular Trade. In the 17 th and 18 th centuries trade in the Atlantic grew rapidly. Europe, Africa, and the New World each had commodities to offer the others. Several trade triangles developed.

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Triangular trade l.jpg
Triangular Trade

  • In the 17th and 18th centuries trade in the Atlantic grew rapidly.

  • Europe, Africa, and the New World each had commodities to offer the others.

  • Several trade triangles developed


Slide3 l.jpg

American Colonies

-Rum

-Fish

-Tobacco

-Rice

-Lumber

-Cotton

-Indigo

  • Europe

  • Copper

  • Guns

  • Manufactured goods

  • Textiles

  • Africa

  • -Enslaved men

  • Enslaved Women

  • Enslaved Children

Caribbean

-Sugar

-Molasses

-Slaves


The importance of rice in south carolina l.jpg

A Case Study of the Symbiotic Trade Relations in the Atlantic

The Importance of Rice in South Carolina


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What is a symbiotic relationship? Atlantic

It is a relationship where each individual or group depends on the other for something. They benefit each other.


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It All Starts with Sugar Atlantic

  • When Europeans first started to settle in the New World, they quickly discovered a new product, sugar.

  • They set up large

    sugar plantations in the

    Caribbean, like Barbados.

  • They needed people

    to work on those

    plantations – African

    slaves


South carolina feeds barbados l.jpg
South Carolina Feeds Barbados Atlantic

  • People seeking a fortune wanted to find ways to make money and acquire more land.

  • South Carolina was “unclaimed” and was close to Barbados. So proprietors went in 1670 to seek their fortunes.

  • Europeans tried various different crops, raised livestock, and cut down lumber to sell.

  • In the beginning, livestock raised in South Carolina fed people in Barbados. South Carolina helped keep the sugar plantations functioning by supporting them with food. Later rice would be a major food staple.

  • Barbados would send sugar and molasses which the American colonies would turn into rum.


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“ The only commodity of consequence produced in South Carolina is rice, and they reckon it as much their staple commodity, as sugar is to Barbados and Jamaica, or tobacco to Virginia and Maryland.” – James Glen, 1761


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Finding Labor Carolina is rice, and they reckon it as much their staple commodity, as sugar is to Barbados and Jamaica, or tobacco to Virginia and Maryland.”

  • Native Indians seemed like a likely source of labor for the proprietors of South Carolina, but there were a couple of problems.

    • Different language, customs

    • They know the land well – easier to run away

    • Colonists feared retaliation from tribes

    • Nevertheless, Indians were used as slaves for generations

Journal Question:

Why do you think Europeans chose enslaved Africans to be the main labor force in the colonies?


European labor l.jpg
European Labor Carolina is rice, and they reckon it as much their staple commodity, as sugar is to Barbados and Jamaica, or tobacco to Virginia and Maryland.”

  • European labor was appealing since white workers were familiar with customs and language.

  • They also were familiar with clearing land and farming which Indians were not.

  • But, white laborers had little motivation to work hard, and they were indentured servants, so there was a time limit for how long they had to work.


African labor l.jpg
African Labor Carolina is rice, and they reckon it as much their staple commodity, as sugar is to Barbados and Jamaica, or tobacco to Virginia and Maryland.”

  • Colonists looked to black slaves as a good source of labor even though they were an expensive initial investment.

  • As with the native population, African slaves did not know the language and customs of the European settlers. But, most slaves entering South Carolina were coming from the English Caribbean, not directly from Africa, so the slaves had time to become acclimated to European culture.


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  • Additionally, Africans, unlike Europeans and Indians, were familiar with rice cultivation as it was a crop grown in West Africa. They brought this knowledge with them and helped to make rice a cash crop.

  • Here is wording from an advertisement that appeared in the Evening Gazette in 1785, “a choice cargo of windward and gold coast negroes, who have been accustomed to the planting of rice.”


Activity l.jpg
Activity familiar with rice cultivation as it was a crop grown in West Africa. They brought this knowledge with them and helped to make rice a cash crop.

  • Each group will be given a picture of either rice production in South Carolina or triangular trade.

  • 1. Feel free to circle or draw arrows to things you think are important.

  • 2. Around the images, write down some observations or questions.

  • 3. In at least 5 sentences write what you think life might have been like for any of the participants in this history.


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American Colonies familiar with rice cultivation as it was a crop grown in West Africa. They brought this knowledge with them and helped to make rice a cash crop.

-Rum

-Fish

-Tobacco

-Rice

-Lumber

-Cotton

-Indigo

An Established Symbiotic Relationship

  • Europe

  • Copper

  • Guns

  • Manufactured goods

  • Textiles

Rice, Rum

Slaves

Slaves, Sugar

Livestock, Rice

Rum

  • Africa

  • -Enslaved men

  • Enslaved Women

  • Enslaved Children

Slaves

Caribbean

-Sugar

-Molasses

-Slaves


Source citations l.jpg
Source Citations familiar with rice cultivation as it was a crop grown in West Africa. They brought this knowledge with them and helped to make rice a cash crop.

  • Pictures

  • Atlantic map http://www.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://faculty.umf.maine.edu/walter.sargent/public.www/web%2520103/map%2520north%2520atlantic%2520historic.jpg&imgrefurl=http://faculty.umf.maine.edu/~walters/web%2520103/week%25201%2520umf%2520103_06.html&usg=__Lucltwvkr3i9YeEaFQnDfZinc1I=&h=378&w=496&sz=75&hl=en&start=0&zoom=1&tbnid=Ff3Hfga_yjsfBM:&tbnh=133&tbnw=152&prev=/images%3Fq%3DAtlantic%2Bhistoric%2Bmap%26um%3D1%26hl%3Den%26sa%3DN%26rlz%3D1C1GGGE_enUS386US386%26biw%3D1024%26bih%3D651%26tbs%3Disch:1&um=1&itbs=1&iact=rc&dur=366&ei=VUh1TNShO4nSsAP5scigDQ&oei=VUh1TNShO4nSsAP5scigDQ&esq=1&page=1&ndsp=16&ved=1t:429,r:7,s:0&tx=108&ty=44

  • Triangular trade http://gs2americanstudies.blogspot.com/

  • Europe outline http://cnx.org/content/m13082/latest/

  • Africa outline http://www.enchantedlearning.com/africa/rivers/outlinemap/

  • American Colonies outline http://www.freekidscoloring.com/13_colonies_map-16481.php

  • Caribbean Outline http://www.enchantedlearning.com/geography/centamer/

  • Rice field http://docsouth.unc.edu/nc/king/ill283.html

  • Sugar plantation http://abolition.e2bn.org/slavery_69.html

  • South Carolina colony http://www.sonofthesouth.net/revolutionary-war/colonies/south-carolina.htm

  • Indians and colonists http://texasliberal.wordpress.com/category/colonial-america/

  • Indentured servants http://www.newton.k12.ks.us/tech/13colonies.htm

  • Triangular trade map http://www.socialstudiesforkids.com/graphics/triangulartrade.jpg

  • Trade map http://americanhistory.abc-clio.com/Search/Display/265722?terms=rice%20triangular%20trade&webSiteCode=SLN_AMHIST&returnToPage=/Search/Display/265722%3fterms%3drice+triangular+trade&token=604E5450CD369B842BD9F2343662BCB8&casError=False

    Pictures of rice production http://docsouth.unc.edu/index.html

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  • Quotes

  • Wood, Peter. Black Majority. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1974. 35,, 60.


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