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Neutrino astronomy with AMANDA and IceCube. Per Olof Hulth Stockholm University hulth@physto.se. Short summary of neutrinos for pedestrians. There are three different “families” of leptons Electron neutrino (  e ) and the electron (e - ) Muon neutrino (   ) and the muon ( - )

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neutrino astronomy with amanda and icecube

Neutrino astronomywithAMANDA and IceCube

Per Olof Hulth

Stockholm University

hulth@physto.se

short summary of neutrinos for pedestrians
Short summary of neutrinos for pedestrians
  • There are three different “families” of leptons
    • Electron neutrino (e) and the electron (e-)
    • Muon neutrino () and the muon (-)
    • Tau neutrino () and the tau (-)
  • The neutrinos penetrates huge amount of matter without being absorbed
    • E.g. a 1 MeV neutrino from the sun has an absorption length of 20 light years in lead!!

Per Olof Hulth Stockholm university

some neutrino numbers
Some neutrino numbers
  • The Sun sends every second out 200.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000 (2*1038) neutrinos
  • At Earth we receive about 40.000.000.000 neutrinos/cm2/second
  • From Big Bang we have 330 000 000 neutrinos/m3 (Energi 0.0004 eV) but only half a proton
  • 340 000 000 neutrinos are creataed in our body every day (40K)

Per Olof Hulth Stockholm university

neutrinos from supernova
Neutrinos from Supernova
  • When a star explodes 99% of the energy is emitted in neutrinos
  • A star exploded 1054. Today the Crab nebula

Per Olof Hulth Stockholm university

slide5

Gamma astronomy

Space is nottransparent for High Energy Photons!

R. Svensson Zdziarski AA.Ap.J.349:415-28(1990)

Kneiski TM, Mannerheim K, Hartmann D.Ap.J. Submitted 2000)

Per Olof Hulth Stockholm university

three open questions in astrophysics
Three open questions in Astrophysics
  • What is the missing dark matter in the Universe?
  • What is the origin of the Highest Energy Cosmic rays?
  • What is powering the Gamma Ray Bursts (GRB)?

Per Olof Hulth Stockholm university

slide7

You need 20 times more matter to keep the system together than what is observed

DARK MATTER

!!!!

Per Olof Hulth Stockholm university

most popular model
Most popular model
  • New type of matter (WIMPs)
  • Supersymmetric particles from Big Bang
  • Neutralinos.

Per Olof Hulth Stockholm university

slide9

WIMPs from Sun/Earth

Dark Matter search

Look for excess of neutrinos from centre of the Earth and the Sun!!

Per Olof Hulth Stockholm university

slide10

Cosmic rays

proton

mesoner

muons

About 100 muons/m2sek

Per Olof Hulth Stockholm university

slide11

Cosmic rays

Energies up to 50 Joules!

What is the process creating these particles???

Per Olof Hulth Stockholm university

slide12

A possible candidate for a source for cosmic rays

Per Olof Hulth Stockholm university

slide13

Gamma Ray Bursts

Source 9 Billion light years away!

The sources of GRBs on cosmologic distances!

The most “violent” objects in the Universe

Per Olof Hulth Stockholm university

gamma ray bursts
Gamma Ray Bursts
  • Could be danger to be too close…

Per Olof Hulth Stockholm university

slide15

Messengers of Astronomy

Only neutrinos cover the whole energy range

Per Olof Hulth Stockholm university

slide16

Neutrino production

If protons are accelerated we expect about equal amount of gammas and neutrino!!

Per Olof Hulth Stockholm university

slide17

Classes of Models

log(E2 Flux)

pp core AGN

p blazar jet

Top-Bottom

model

Various recent

models for

transient sources

GRB

(W&B)

3 6 9

log(E/GeV)

TeV PeV EeV

Per Olof Hulth Stockholm university

neutrino astronomy so far
Neutrino astronomy so far
  • Only two neutrino sources in space has been observed.
  • The solar neutrinos (Nobel price 2002)
  • Neutrinos from SN1987 in the Large Magellanic Cloud (180 000 light years)
  • Energy of neutrinos only 1-30 MeV

Per Olof Hulth Stockholm university

slide19

Neutrino physics (again)

  • We have three types of neutrinos:
    • Electron neutrino ne
    • Muon neutrino nm
    • Tau neutrinon nt

E.g. Neutron decay :

neutron -> proton + e- + ne

Per Olof Hulth Stockholm university

slide20

Neutrino interaction





< 1 degree

The muon can travel several km in e.g. ice

Per Olof Hulth Stockholm university

slide21

Cherenkov radiation

A charged particle moving with the speed of light in the medium will generate a shock wave of light

q

cosq = 1/(nb)

b = v/c, n= refraction index

Per Olof Hulth Stockholm university

slide22

The AMANDA telescope at the

South Pole

  • Why the South Pole?
  • A 3000 meter thick glaciar
  • A scientific base with all infra structure
  • No fishes and no 40K

Per Olof Hulth Stockholm university

slide23

AMANDA

Per Olof Hulth Stockholm university

slide24

South Pole

Per Olof Hulth Stockholm university

slide28

myon

neutrino

Per Olof Hulth Stockholm university

slide29

106 muons from cosmic rays/muon from neutrinos

!!!!

myon

Select only

muons from

below!!!!

neutrino

Per Olof Hulth Stockholm university

slide30

Hot water heaters

-50 m

-55 C

-25 C

-2400 m

Per Olof Hulth Stockholm university

slide33

-840 m

Per Olof Hulth Stockholm university

slide34

AMANDA

Per Olof Hulth Stockholm university

amanda event signatures muons
AMANDA Event Signatures:Muons

DATA

CC muon neutrino

interactions  Muon tracks

Per Olof Hulth Stockholm university

nm + N  m + X

point sources amanda ii 2000
Point Sources Amanda II (2000)

Skyplot is scrambled in

event time for blind analysis,

Plot has been released, and

results will be available soon.

Examples for a few candidates will

be given.

Equatorial coordinates:

declination vs. right ascension.

Per Olof Hulth Stockholm university

slide38

-45

0

45

90

-90

AMANDA B10 and A-II:

some limits and projected sensitivity

10-13

m cm-2 s-1

AMANDA B10 average

Sensitivity for sel. soruces

Super-Kamiokande

To appear in ApJ:

astro-ph/0208006

10-14

A-II, limit on SS433

A-II, sensitivity on SS433

MACRO

10-15

SS433*

A-II, limit on Mrk 501

A-II projected sensitivity

Combined 97-02

Mrk501

(HEGRA 97, n/g=1)

Declination (deg)

Per Olof Hulth Stockholm university

slide39

Amanda Analysis activities

  • AMANDA-B10 1997 analysis at the end
  • AMANDA-B10 1999 analysis started
  • AMANDA-II 2000 filtering done, first analyses started
  • AMANDA-II 2001 online filtering continuously done

In order to do a “blind analysis” only 20% of the data is used for tuning cuts

Per Olof Hulth Stockholm university

slide40

IceCube!!

IceCube has been designed as a discovery instrument with improved:

telescope area

detection volume

energy measurement of secondary muons and electromagnetic showers

identification of neutrino flavor

angular resolution

Per Olof Hulth Stockholm university

the icecube collaboration
The IceCube Collaboration
  • 11 European, 1 Japanese, 1 South American and 11 US Institutions
  • (many of them are also AMANDA member institutions)
  • Bartol Research Institute, University of Delaware, Newark, USA
  • BUGH Wuppertal, Germany
  • Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels, Belgium
  • Dept. of Physics, Chiba University, Japan
  • CTSPS, Clark-Atlanta University, Atlanta USA
  • DESY-Zeuthen, Zeuthen, Germany
  • Imperial College, London, UK
  • Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, USA
  • Dept. of Technology, Kalmar University, Kalmar, Sweden
  • Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, USA
  • Dept. of Physics, Southern University and A\&M College, Baton Rouge, LA, USA
  • Dept. of Physics, UC Berkeley, USA
  • Institute of Physics, University of Mainz, Mainz, Germany
  • Dept. of Physics, University of Maryland, USA
  • University of Mons-Hainaut, Mons, Belgium
  • Dept. of Physics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA, USA
  • Dept. of Physics, Simon Bolivar University, Caracas, Venezuela
  • Dept. of Astronomy, Dept. of Physics, SSEC, University of Wisconsin, Madison, USA
  • Physics Dept., University of Wisconsin, River Falls, USA
  • Division of High Energy Physics, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden
  • Fysikum, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden
  • Dept. of Physics, University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, USA
  • Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Brussel, Belgium
  • Utrecht, Holland (since 29th of October 2002)

Per Olof Hulth Stockholm university

slide42

Grid

North

100 m

AMANDA

South Pole

SPASE-2

Dome

Skiway

IceCube:Top View

80 strings

60 modules/string

Volume 1 km3

Depth 1400-2400 m

Counting

House

Per Olof Hulth Stockholm university

slide43

IceTop

AMANDA

South Pole

IceCube

Skiway

80 Strings

4800 PMT

1400 m

2400 m

Per Olof Hulth Stockholm university

slide44

- flavors and energy ranges

Filled area: particle id, angle, energy

Shaded area: energy and angle.

Per Olof Hulth Stockholm university

slide45

µ-events in IceCube

Eµ=6 PeV

Eµ=10 TeV

AMANDA-II

1 km

Measure energy by counting the number of fired PMT.

(This is a very simple but robust method)

Per Olof Hulth Stockholm university

slide46

1 pp core AGN (Nellen)

2 p core AGN

Stecker & Salomon)

3 p „maximum model“

(Mannheim et al.)

4 p blazar jets (Mannh)

5 p AGN

(Rachen & Biermann)

6 pp AGN (Mannheim)

7 GRB

(Waxman & Bahcall)

8 TD (Sigl)

Diffuse Fluxes: Predictions and Limits

Mannheim & Learned,

2000

Macro

Baikal

Amanda

IceCube

Per Olof Hulth Stockholm university

slide47

Compare to Mrk 501 gamma rays

Field of view:

Continuous

2 p sr

(northern sky)

AMANDA B10

prelim. limit

Sensitivity of

3 years of IceCube

Per Olof Hulth Stockholm university

slide48

Neutrinos from Gamma Ray Bursts

Test signal: 1000 GRB a la Waxman/Bahcall 1999

Expected no. of events: 11 upgoing muon events

Expected background: 0.05 events

Sensitivity (1000 bursts):

0.2  dN/dE (Waxman/Bahcall 99)

Only 200 GRB needed to detect/rule out WB99 flux

Per Olof Hulth Stockholm university

slide49

Cascade event

ne + N --> e- + X

The length of the actual cascade, ≈ 10 m, is small compared to the spacing of sensors

1 PeV ≈ 500 m diameter

Fully active calorimeter with linear energy resolution

Sensitivity for diffused flux about the same as for muons

E = 375 TeV

Per Olof Hulth Stockholm university

slide50

“Double Bang”

t + N --> t- + X

t + X

  • E << 1 PeV: Single cascade
  • (2 cascades coincide)
  • E ≈ 1 PeV: Double bang
  • E >> 1 PeV: Second cascade + tau track

Per Olof Hulth Stockholm university

slide51

Tau neutrinos and oscillations

Enhanced role of tau neutrinos because of neutrino oscillation!?

Cosmic beam: ne = nµ = nt because of oscillations

nt not absorbed by the Earth (regeneration)

Pile-Up near 1 PeV where ideal sensitivity

IceCube sensitive to m2>10-17 eV2

Per Olof Hulth Stockholm university

slide52

Dark matter detection with IceCube

WIMPS from Earth

WIMPS from Sun

Ice3 will significantly improve the sensitivity!

Per Olof Hulth Stockholm university

slide53

Supernova detection

  • ne + p n + e+(10-40 MeV)
  • PMT noise increase due to the positrons
  • AMANDA/IceCube records the noise of the PMTs over 0.5 sec and summing up total rate over 10 sec intervals.
  • Detectors to be connected to Supernova Early Warning System

AMANDA

IceCube

In addition to the MeV e neutrinos, 10-100 muon neutrinos are expected after a few hours in the TeV energy range.

Per Olof Hulth Stockholm university

summary
Summary
  • IceCube will open a significant new window on the Universe.
  • Hopefully we will observe something which has not been discussed in this presentation.

Per Olof Hulth Stockholm university

slide55

Hotwater Drilling

Experience with AMANDA: 19 holes

Upgrade:from 2 to5 MW

Projected time to 2450 m depth: 40 h

Diameter: 50 cm

Drill 2 holes per week; 16 holes per season

Per Olof Hulth Stockholm university

slide56

Optical sensor

Installation of one sensor: ≈10 min

Per Olof Hulth Stockholm university

slide58

Mats Pettersson Gymnasielärare från Angereds gymnasium Göteborg vid sydpolen 14 november 2001

Per Olof Hulth Stockholm university

slide61

Joakim Edsjö SU

Per Olof Hulth Stockholm university