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Computer Confluence 7/e. © 2006 Prentice-Hall, Inc. Computer Confluence 7/e. Chapter 3 Hardware Basics: Peripherals. © 2006 Prentice-Hall, Inc. Computer Confluence 7/e Chapter 3 Objectives. Input devices and their roles in getting different types of information into the computer

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Computer Confluence 7/e

© 2006 Prentice-Hall, Inc.


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Computer Confluence 7/e

Chapter 3

Hardware Basics: Peripherals

© 2006 Prentice-Hall, Inc.


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Computer Confluence 7/eChapter 3Objectives

Input devices and their roles in getting different types of information into the computer

Output devices and the ways they make computers more useful

The functionality of different types of storage devices

The ways the components of a computer system fit together

© 2006 Prentice-Hall, Inc.


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Computer Confluence 7/eChapter 3Input: From Person to Processor

Keyboard

The most familiar input device

Used to enter letters, numbers and special characters

© 2006 Prentice-Hall, Inc.


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Computer Confluence 7/eChapter 3Input: From Person to Processor

Standard keyboard

Ergonomic keyboards

To address possible medical problems

Wireless keyboard

Folding keyboards

Used with palm-sizedcomputers

One-handed keyboards

Keyboards printed on membranes

© 2006 Prentice-Hall, Inc.


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Computer Confluence 7/eChapter 3Input: From Person to Processor

Pointing Devices

Mouse

Touchpad

Pointing stick

Trackball

Joystick

Graphics tablet

Touch screen

Stylus

© 2006 Prentice-Hall, Inc.


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Computer Confluence 7/eChapter 3Input: From Person to Processor

Reading Tools

Reads marks representing codes specifically designed

for computer input

© 2006 Prentice-Hall, Inc.


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Computer Confluence 7/eChapter 3Input: From Person to Processor

Optical-mark readers

Magnetic-ink character readers

Bar-code readers

Pen scanners

Tablet PC

Smart whiteboard

Radio Frequency Identification Readers

© 2006 Prentice-Hall, Inc.


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Computer Confluence 7/eChapter 3Input: From Person to Processor

Digitizing the Real World

Scanners capture and digitize printed images

Flatbed

Slide

Drum

Sheet-fed

© 2006 Prentice-Hall, Inc.


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Computer Confluence 7/eChapter 3Input: From Person to Processor

Digital camera

Snapshots captured as digital images

Digital images stored as bit patterns on disks or other digital storage media

© 2006 Prentice-Hall, Inc.


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Computer Confluence 7/eChapter 3Input: From Person to Processor

Video digitizer

Capture input from a:

Video camera

Video cassette recorder or television

Convert it to a digital signal

Stored in memory and displayed on computer screens

Videoconferencing

People in diverse locations can see and hear each other

Used to conduct long-distance meetings

Video images transmitted through networks

© 2006 Prentice-Hall, Inc.


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Computer Confluence 7/eChapter 3Input: From Person to Processor

Audio digitizers

Digitize sounds from

Microphones

Other input devices

Digital signals can be

Stored

Further processed with specialized software

A digital signal processing chip compresses the stream of bits before it is transmitted to the CPU

© 2006 Prentice-Hall, Inc.


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Computer Confluence 7/eChapter 3Input: From Person to Processor

Speech recognition software

Converts voice data into words that can be edited and printed

© 2006 Prentice-Hall, Inc.


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Computer Confluence 7/eChapter 3Input: From Person to Processor

Sensors

Designed to monitor physical conditions

Temperature, humidity, pressure

Provide data used in:

Robotics

Environmental climate control

Weather forecasting

Medical monitoring

Biofeedback

Scientific research

© 2006 Prentice-Hall, Inc.


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Computer Confluence 7/eChapter 3Output: From Pulses to People

Screen Output

A monitor or video display terminal (VDT) displays characters, graphics, photographic images, animation and video

Video adapter—connects the monitor to the computer

VRAM or video memory—a special portion of RAM to hold video images

the more video memory, the more picture detail is displayed

© 2006 Prentice-Hall, Inc.


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Computer Confluence 7/eChapter 3Output: From Pulses to People

Monitor size: Measured as a diagonal line across the screen

Resolution: The number of pixels displayed on the screen

Pixels (or picture elements): tiny dots that compose a picture

The higher the resolution, the closer together the dots

Image quality is affected by resolution and color depth (or bit depth)

Color depth refers to the number of different colors a monitor displays at one time

© 2006 Prentice-Hall, Inc.


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Computer Confluence 7/eChapter 3Output: From Pulses to People

Monitor classes

CRTs (cathode-ray tubes)

LCDs (liquid crystal displays) are now more popular

Overhead projection panels

Video projectors

Portable computers

© 2006 Prentice-Hall, Inc.


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Computer Confluence 7/eChapter 3Output: From Pulses to People

Paper Output

Printers produce paper output or hard copy

Two basic groups of printers:

Impact printers

Line printers

Dot-matrix printers

© 2006 Prentice-Hall, Inc.


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Computer Confluence 7/eChapter 3Output: From Pulses to People

Non-impact printers

Laser printers

Laser beam reflected off a rotating drum to create patterns of electrical charges

Faster and more expensive than dot matrix printer

High-resolution output

Inkjet printers

Sprays ink onto paper to produce printed text and graphic images

Prints fewer pages/minute than laser printer

High-quality color costing less than laser printer

© 2006 Prentice-Hall, Inc.


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Computer Confluence 7/eChapter 3Output: From Pulses to People

Multifunction printer or MFP combines a scanner, printer and a fax modem

Plotter: can produce large, finely scaled engineering blueprints and maps

© 2006 Prentice-Hall, Inc.


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Computer Confluence 7/eChapter 3Output: From Pulses to People

Fax Machines and Fax Modems

Facsimile (fax) machine

Sending:

fax machine scans each page as an image,

converts the image into a series of electronic pulses,

sends those signals over phone lines to another fax.

Receiving:

fax machine uses the signals to reconstruct the image and

print black-and-white facsimiles or copies of the originals

Fax modem:

directly from PC to fax machine via modem & phone line

© 2006 Prentice-Hall, Inc.


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Computer Confluence 7/eChapter 3Output: From Pulses to People

Output You Can Hear

Sound card

Enables the PC to:

Accept microphone input

Play music and other sound through speakers or headphones

Process sound in a variety of ways

Synthesizers

Used to produce music, noise

© 2006 Prentice-Hall, Inc.


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Computer Confluence 7/eChapter 3Output: From Pulses to People

Controlling Other Machines

Output devices take bit patterns and turn them into non-digital movements

Robot arms

Telephone switchboards

Transportation devices

Automated factory equipment

Spacecraft

Force feedback joystick

© 2006 Prentice-Hall, Inc.


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Computer Confluence 7/eChapter 3Output: From Pulses to People

Rules of Thumb: Ergonomics and Health

Choose equipment that’s ergonomically designed

Create a healthy workspace

Build flexibility into your work environment

Rest your eyes

Stretch to loosen tight muscles

Listen to your body

Seek help when you need it

© 2006 Prentice-Hall, Inc.


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Computer Confluence 7/eChapter 3Storage Devices: Input Meets Output

Magnetic Tape

Can store large amounts of information in a small space at a relatively low cost

Limitation: sequential data access

Used mainly for backup purposes

© 2006 Prentice-Hall, Inc.


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Computer Confluence 7/eChapter 3Storage Devices: Input Meets Output

Magnetic Disks

Random data access

Floppy disks

Provide inexpensive, portable storage

Hard disks

Non-removable, rigid disks that spin continuously and rapidly

Provide much faster access than a floppy disk

Removable media (Zip & Jaz disks)

Provide high-capacity portable storage

© 2006 Prentice-Hall, Inc.


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Computer Confluence 7/eChapter 3Storage Devices: Input Meets Output

Optical Disks

Use laser beams to read and write bits of information on the disk surface

Not as fast as magnetic hard disks

Massive storage capacity

Very reliable

© 2006 Prentice-Hall, Inc.


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Computer Confluence 7/eChapter 3Storage Devices: Input Meets Output

CD-ROM

Optical drives that read CD-ROMs

CD-R

WORM media (write-once, read many)

CD-RW

Can read CD-ROMs and write, erase and

rewrite data onto CD-R & CD-RW disks

© 2006 Prentice-Hall, Inc.


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Computer Confluence 7/eChapter 3Storage Devices: Input Meets Output

DVD (Digital Versatile Disks)

Store & distribute all kinds of data

Hold between 3.8 and 17 gigabytes of information

DVD-ROM drives

Can play DVD movies, read DVD data disks, read

standard CD-ROMs, and play audio CDs

Because they’re read-only, they can’t record data, music, or movies

DVD-RAM drives

Can read, erase, and write data (but not DVD video) on multi-gigabyte

DVD-R (but not CD-R or CD-RW) media

© 2006 Prentice-Hall, Inc.


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Computer Confluence 7/eChapter 3Storage Devices: Input Meets Output

Solid-State Storage Devices

Flash memory is an erasable memory chip

Sizes range from 16 MB to 1 GB

Compact alternative to disk storage

Contains no moving parts

Designed for specific applications such as storing pictures in digital cameras

Likely to replace disk and tape storage

© 2006 Prentice-Hall, Inc.


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Computer Confluence 7/e Chapter 3Computer Systems: The Sum of Its Parts

Personal Computers: basic design classes

Tower systems

Tall, narrow boxes that generally have more expansion slots and bays than other designs

Flat desktop systems

Designed to sit under the monitor like a platform

All-in-one systems (like the iMac)

Combine monitor and system unit into a single housing

© 2006 Prentice-Hall, Inc.


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Computer Confluence 7/e Chapter 3Computer Systems: The Sum of Its Parts

Portable computers

Include all the essential components, including keyboard and pointing device, in one compact box

© 2006 Prentice-Hall, Inc.


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Computer Confluence 7/e Chapter 3Computer Systems: The Sum of Its Parts

Ports and Slots Revisited

The system or motherboard includes several standard ports:

Serial Port for attaching devices that send/receive messages one bit at a time (modems)

Parallel Port for attaching devices that send/receive bits in groups (printers)

Keyboard/Mouse Portfor attaching a keyboard and a mouse

© 2006 Prentice-Hall, Inc.


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Computer Confluence 7/e Chapter 3Computer Systems: The Sum of Its Parts

Other ports are typically included on expansion boards rather than the system board:

Video Port used to plug in a color monitor into the video board

Microphone, speaker, headphone, MIDI ports used to attach sound equipment

SCSI port allows several peripherals to be strung together and attached to a single port

LAN port used faster connection to a local-area network (LAN)

© 2006 Prentice-Hall, Inc.


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Computer Confluence 7/e Chapter 3Computer Systems: The Sum of Its Parts

Expansion Made Easy

With the PC open architecture and the introduction of new interfaces, you can hot swap devices.

USB (Universal Serial Bus) transmits a hundred times faster than a PC serial port

Firewire (IEEE 1394) can move data between devices at 400 or more megabits per second

High speed makes it ideal for data-intensive work like digital video

FireWire 800

Recently introduced on high-end Macintosh systems offers 800 Mbps transfer speeds

© 2006 Prentice-Hall, Inc.


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Computer Confluence 7/e Chapter 3Computer Systems: The Sum of Its Parts

Putting It All Together

A typical computer system might have several different input, output, and storage peripherals -- the key is compatibility

Networks blur the boundaries between computers

Networked computers may have access to all the peripherals on a system

The computer is, in effect, just a tiny part of a global system of interconnected networks

© 2006 Prentice-Hall, Inc.


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You can count how many seeds are in the apple,

but not how many apples are in the seed.

—Ken Kesey, author ofOne Flew over the Cuckoo’s Nest

Computer Confluence 7/eChapter 3Inventing the Future: Tomorrow’s Peripherals

Tomorrow’s Storage

Smaller disks that hold more

a single-electron memory chip the size of a thumbnail that can store all the sounds and images of a full-length feature film

Tomorrow’s Output

Flat-panel screens are replacing desktop CRTs at an ever-increasing rate

Retinal display that works without a screen

© 2006 Prentice-Hall, Inc.


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Computer Confluence 7/eChapter 3Inventing the Future: Tomorrow’s Peripherals

Tomorrow’s Input: Sensors

More sophisticated devices will serve as eyes, ears, and other types of sense organs for computer networks

© 2006 Prentice-Hall, Inc.


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A computer terminal is not some clunky old television with a typewriter in front of it. It is an interface where the mind and body can connect with the universe and move bits of it about.

—Douglas Adams, author of The Hitchhiker’s Guide to the Galaxy

Computer Confluence 7/eChapter 3Lesson Summary

Peripherals allow computer to communicate with the outside world and store information for later useinformation

The most common input devices today are the keyboard and the mouse

A variety of other input devices can be connected to the computer

© 2006 Prentice-Hall, Inc.


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Computer Confluence 7/eChapter 3Lesson Summary

Output devices perform the opposite function: They accept strings of bits from the computer and transform them into a form that is useful or meaningful outside the computer

Storage devices are capable of two-way communication with the computer: Because of their high-speed random access capability are the most common forms of storage on modern computers

© 2006 Prentice-Hall, Inc.


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As a rule, men worrymore about what they can’t see than about what they can.

—Julius Caesar

Computer Confluence 7/eChapter 3Lesson Summary

Network connections make it possible for computers to communicate with one another directly

© 2006 Prentice-Hall, Inc.