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Group Members Akou Amefia Kari Alderman Shivakumar Elayedath Tiffany Gregory Carrie Mueller Luis Rodriguez-Romo Hector Ruiz-Espinosa FST 696 Spring 2000. Lemon Curd Sauce. What is Lemon Curd?. Traditional English dessert sauce. Eggs, butter, sugar, lemon juice. Gourmet product.

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Group Members

Akou Amefia

Kari Alderman

Shivakumar Elayedath

Tiffany Gregory

Carrie Mueller

Luis Rodriguez-Romo

Hector Ruiz-Espinosa

FST 696

Spring 2000

Lemon Curd Sauce


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What is Lemon Curd?

  • Traditional English dessert sauce.

  • Eggs, butter, sugar, lemon juice.

  • Gourmet product.

  • Some national and imported brands available on the market, but none have neither the organolpetic properties of the original nor only its ingredients (other food additives).


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Issues

  • To take a kitchen recipe to an industrial operation

  • Desired shelf life stability, 1 year

  • No additives

  • No preservatives


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Glorious Gourmet

  • Gourmet Food Company, based in Ohio.

  • Specialty stores, several products in the market.

  • Target market:

    • Upper class

    • People who eat what is “IN”

    • Not health conscious


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Usage of Lemon Curd

  • Spread on muffins, croissants, and other breads

  • A filling for pies and tarts


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Role of Eggs

  • Multifunctional properties:

    • coagulation

    • foaming

    • emulsion forming


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Coagulation

  • Coagulation can be achieved by:

    • heating

    • acid addition

  • Factors affecting coagulation:

    • temperature (62-65oC)

    • Sugar increases temperature of coagulation

    • Acid lowers time and temperature of coagulation


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Emulsion formation

  • Lipoproteins and phospholipids in egg yolk help in emulsification

  • Factors affecting emulsion formation:

    • Viscosity

    • Heating yolk to 63oC

    • Fermentation of yolk with pancreatic lipase


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Role of butter

  • Butter gives the product

    • flavor

    • texture and mouthfeel of the product

  • Phospholipids in the fat globule membrane of the butter also give the product some emulsification

  • Oxidative stability is high

    • high content of saturated fatty acids

    • low in poly-unsaturates

  • Has natural antioxidants which reduce lipid oxidation


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Lemon juice

  • Average pH - 2.3

  • Main component citric acid

  • Role in Lemon curd:

    • Flavor (tartness & lemon flavor)

    • Protein denaturation (body, texture & mouth feel)

    • Acidulant (antimicrobial agent)

    • Citric acid sequesters the metals –prevents lipid oxidation


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Sugar

  • Sweetening agent

  • Balances natural acidity in fruits

  • Reduces water activity by binding free water

  • Increases microbial stability

  • Protects egg proteins from acid and heat denaturation

  • Prevents syneresis

  • Participates in browning reactions ( acid hydrolysis)


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Responsible for the pungency of flavor(aldehyde ester)

Most important flavor component is citral (neral & gerenial)

Lemon oil



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Processing Method

  • Equipment

    • Steam kettles Howlett Hall

    • Stephan UMC V Electronic Batch Process

  • Variables

    • Order of addition

      • Preblending eggs, butter, sugar

      • Addition of lemon juice as last ingredient


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Processing Method

  • Variables

    • Cooking Temperature

    • Processing Method (using Stephan UMC)

      • Pre-blending of eggs, sugar and butter

      • Addition of remaining ingredients

      • Bring to 104°F

      • Hot fill into glass jars

      • Remaining heat treatment in 170°F water bath


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Emulsion Stability: method and results

Oil separation on subjecting product to high temperature and centrifugation (Pai,1995)


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pH and TA: Methodology.

  • Titratable acidity

    Measurement of acidity within a sample . It is expressed in terms of citric acid

  • pH

    Measured using Fisher Accumet pH Meter Model 630



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Aw and Viscosity: Methodology

  • Water activity:

    Measured using a Decagon CX-2 Water Activity Meter on some of our samples and ranged from 0.949 to 0.950.

  • Viscosity Measurements

    A Brookfield Viscometer (model DV) was used . Spindle #4 was used at a speed of 1.0RPM for 2 minutes.



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Color Analysis: Methodology

  • Instrument: HunterLab Ultrascan colorimeter

  • Readings made on 150F fill, 170F fill, water bath, and original order of addition samples using square glass sample holders

  • L, a, and b values obtained

    • L = lightness

    • Positive a = red, Negative a = green

    • Positive b = yellow, Negative b = blue


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Color AnalysisResults for L-values over time


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Color AnalysisResults for a-values over time


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Color AnalysisResults for b-values over time


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Color Analysis: Results

  • No statistically significant differences were found

  • General trend: L decreases over time

  • After 14 days of accelerated shelf life at 37C:

    • water bath sample has highest L-value


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Sensory Analysis: Methodology

  • Descriptive analysis used

    • Panel: Lemon curd group members

    • Scoresheet: Unstructured line scale

    • Attributes:

      • Color

      • Lemon flavor

      • Sweetness

      • Smoothness

      • Thickness


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Sensory Analysis: Methodology(continued)

  • 150F fill, 170F fill, water bath, and original order of addition samples were analyzed at 0, 7, and 14 days of accelerated shelf life (37C)

  • Data quantified by ruler

  • Data analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey’s pairwise comparisons using SAS at 5% significance level



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Sensory Analysis: Results

  • Lack of statistically significant differences

    • Many sources of variation

  • Differences found in:

    • Color: water bath lighter in yellow color

      • Correlates with color data

    • Lemon: original order of addition most intense

    • Thickness: 150F fill least thick

      • Correlates with viscosity measurements


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MICROBIOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF LEMON CURD


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Methodology

  • Simulated extended shelf life of product at 25 & 37 °C

  • TOTAL PLATE COUNT (Plate Count Agar) Presence of aerobic mesophiles

  • YEASTS & MOLDS:

    Acidified Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA)

    Identification of yeast & molds


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Methodology, Conditions

  • PREPARATIONS OF LEMON CURD (DIFFERENT. PREPARATION CONDITIONS)

  • SHELF-LIFE °T 25 & 37 °C

  • TIME DAYS (1- >7)



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Microbiological results

  • Not detectable bacterial plate count

    (< 10 cfu/g in more than 7 days at 25 & 37 °C)

  • Growth of molds (Rhizopus spp.) in seven days


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Recommendations

  • Use of antimicrobial agent: sodium benzoate at up to 0.1 %

  • Keep the product refrigerated after opening

  • Water bath heating after filling