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Lemon Curd Sauce

Lemon Curd Sauce

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Lemon Curd Sauce

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  1. Group Members Akou Amefia Kari Alderman Shivakumar Elayedath Tiffany Gregory Carrie Mueller Luis Rodriguez-Romo Hector Ruiz-Espinosa FST 696 Spring 2000 Lemon Curd Sauce

  2. What is Lemon Curd? • Traditional English dessert sauce. • Eggs, butter, sugar, lemon juice. • Gourmet product. • Some national and imported brands available on the market, but none have neither the organolpetic properties of the original nor only its ingredients (other food additives).

  3. Issues • To take a kitchen recipe to an industrial operation • Desired shelf life stability, 1 year • No additives • No preservatives

  4. Glorious Gourmet • Gourmet Food Company, based in Ohio. • Specialty stores, several products in the market. • Target market: • Upper class • People who eat what is “IN” • Not health conscious

  5. Usage of Lemon Curd • Spread on muffins, croissants, and other breads • A filling for pies and tarts

  6. Role of Eggs • Multifunctional properties: • coagulation • foaming • emulsion forming

  7. Coagulation • Coagulation can be achieved by: • heating • acid addition • Factors affecting coagulation: • temperature (62-65oC) • Sugar increases temperature of coagulation • Acid lowers time and temperature of coagulation

  8. Emulsion formation • Lipoproteins and phospholipids in egg yolk help in emulsification • Factors affecting emulsion formation: • Viscosity • Heating yolk to 63oC • Fermentation of yolk with pancreatic lipase

  9. Role of butter • Butter gives the product • flavor • texture and mouthfeel of the product • Phospholipids in the fat globule membrane of the butter also give the product some emulsification • Oxidative stability is high • high content of saturated fatty acids • low in poly-unsaturates • Has natural antioxidants which reduce lipid oxidation

  10. Lemon juice • Average pH - 2.3 • Main component citric acid • Role in Lemon curd: • Flavor (tartness & lemon flavor) • Protein denaturation (body, texture & mouth feel) • Acidulant (antimicrobial agent) • Citric acid sequesters the metals –prevents lipid oxidation

  11. Sugar • Sweetening agent • Balances natural acidity in fruits • Reduces water activity by binding free water • Increases microbial stability • Protects egg proteins from acid and heat denaturation • Prevents syneresis • Participates in browning reactions ( acid hydrolysis)

  12. Responsible for the pungency of flavor(aldehyde ester) Most important flavor component is citral (neral & gerenial) Lemon oil

  13. METHODOLOGY & RESULTS

  14. Processing Method • Equipment • Steam kettles Howlett Hall • Stephan UMC V Electronic Batch Process • Variables • Order of addition • Preblending eggs, butter, sugar • Addition of lemon juice as last ingredient

  15. Processing Method • Variables • Cooking Temperature • Processing Method (using Stephan UMC) • Pre-blending of eggs, sugar and butter • Addition of remaining ingredients • Bring to 104°F • Hot fill into glass jars • Remaining heat treatment in 170°F water bath

  16. Emulsion Stability: method and results Oil separation on subjecting product to high temperature and centrifugation (Pai,1995)

  17. pH and TA: Methodology. • Titratable acidity Measurement of acidity within a sample . It is expressed in terms of citric acid • pH Measured using Fisher Accumet pH Meter Model 630

  18. TA and pH: Results.

  19. Aw and Viscosity: Methodology • Water activity: Measured using a Decagon CX-2 Water Activity Meter on some of our samples and ranged from 0.949 to 0.950. • Viscosity Measurements A Brookfield Viscometer (model DV) was used . Spindle #4 was used at a speed of 1.0RPM for 2 minutes.

  20. Viscosity: results

  21. Color Analysis: Methodology • Instrument: HunterLab Ultrascan colorimeter • Readings made on 150F fill, 170F fill, water bath, and original order of addition samples using square glass sample holders • L, a, and b values obtained • L = lightness • Positive a = red, Negative a = green • Positive b = yellow, Negative b = blue

  22. Color AnalysisResults for L-values over time

  23. Color AnalysisResults for a-values over time

  24. Color AnalysisResults for b-values over time

  25. Color Analysis: Results • No statistically significant differences were found • General trend: L decreases over time • After 14 days of accelerated shelf life at 37C: • water bath sample has highest L-value

  26. Sensory Analysis: Methodology • Descriptive analysis used • Panel: Lemon curd group members • Scoresheet: Unstructured line scale • Attributes: • Color • Lemon flavor • Sweetness • Smoothness • Thickness

  27. Sensory Analysis: Methodology(continued) • 150F fill, 170F fill, water bath, and original order of addition samples were analyzed at 0, 7, and 14 days of accelerated shelf life (37C) • Data quantified by ruler • Data analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey’s pairwise comparisons using SAS at 5% significance level

  28. Average Panel Scores for Lemon Curd Attributes

  29. Sensory Analysis: Results • Lack of statistically significant differences • Many sources of variation • Differences found in: • Color: water bath lighter in yellow color • Correlates with color data • Lemon: original order of addition most intense • Thickness: 150F fill least thick • Correlates with viscosity measurements

  30. MICROBIOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF LEMON CURD

  31. Methodology • Simulated extended shelf life of product at 25 & 37 °C • TOTAL PLATE COUNT (Plate Count Agar) Presence of aerobic mesophiles • YEASTS & MOLDS: Acidified Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA) Identification of yeast & molds

  32. Methodology, Conditions • PREPARATIONS OF LEMON CURD (DIFFERENT. PREPARATION CONDITIONS) • SHELF-LIFE °T 25 & 37 °C • TIME DAYS (1- >7)

  33. Microbiological results

  34. Microbiological results • Not detectable bacterial plate count (< 10 cfu/g in more than 7 days at 25 & 37 °C) • Growth of molds (Rhizopus spp.) in seven days

  35. Recommendations • Use of antimicrobial agent: sodium benzoate at up to 0.1 % • Keep the product refrigerated after opening • Water bath heating after filling