Lecture 14 . Pre-class Slides on Farm Women; FYI : background on 1929 Stock Market Handouts Bye article summary Tom Brown reading for next week Assignment #2 and marked paper/test Announcements Volunteer for a note-taker in the class? Send animal photos to my Hotmail
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Pre-class Slides on Farm Women; FYI: background on 1929 Stock Market HandoutsBye article summary
Tom Brown reading for next week
Assignment #2 and marked paper/test
Volunteer for a note-taker in the class? Send animal photos to my Hotmail
Assignment #2 One week extension: Now due Tuesday, Nov. 23 Overview and marking Topics from past classesLecture
General reflections on farming and gender
Reading Bye, C.G. (2005). I like to hoe my own row: A Saskatchewan farm woman’s notions about work and womanhood during the Great Depression. Frontiers: A Journal of Women Studies, 26 (3), 135-67.18
One week extension because of high number of students starting with a different topic than #1
A SOCIO-ECOLOGICAL GENEALOGY OF YOUR TOPIC
GOAL: To better understand how and why social and environmental forces are implicated in one aspect of your topic since the time you were born.
GRADING (worth 20% of total mark)20 WRITING & FORMATTING: clarity, grammar, spelling, punctuation, official formatting (APA...) 15 INTRODUCTION: introduce the topic, main focus, and a “map” to the paper 40 BODY OF PAPER: be concise and use your sociological imagination; let a LOT of information go!5 GENEALOGY 10 CONCLUSION10 REFERENCES 100 = X/20
OBJECTIVES and Paper Layout: No cover page. Start writing after your name and paper title.
1. Introduction (two paragraphs): Your Introduction includes a brief overview of the topic, a sociological question on the tension/problem you will explore, a statement about why the question needs to be asked, and how you’ll respond to the question in the paper.
To articulate the tension/problem, find 2 pop culture sources relating to your topic that present different views. To state how you will respond to the question, you could write: “By examining central messages in online videos, magazine articles and journals, I explore ...).
2. Discussion (two to three pages, single spaced): This is your solid response to your sociological question – even if you do not agree with what you find. Write in the manner you feel most comfortable using.
This is not a report containing reams of social facts on your topic. Rather, while you must include some of that descriptive data, you include and organize what you discover in your sources about: What were some prevalent social events going on when I was born that may have been related to my topic?
Who benefits? Who does not benefit? What are the related tensions? Who forms the resistance (counterculture) to the tension/problem, then and now? What has that counterculture been doing and saying over the past two decades? How has society been impacted by this topic on both micro- and macro-levels? How are gender and sexuality implicated?
How has the environment been impacted?
3. Genealogy (one-half to one page): Drawing from what you discovered in the Discussion, you can now trace the threads of general social forces that have kept your topic “alive” in popular culture since you were born. Either hand-draw or computer generate.
4. Conclusion (less than one page):
Conclude your paper with a brief reiteration of the problem, the question you asked, and a summary of the discussion. Offer the best explanation for why the issue under study persists in society. Finally, include a suggestion for future research in the area.
5. References: 2 pop culture sources (magazines, videos, lyrics, newspapers...; at least 2 scholarly sources. At least one of your four sources must be from the year of your birth.
READING “I LIKE TO HOE MY OWN ROW:A Saskatchewan Farm Woman’s Notions about Work and Womanhood during the Great Depression”
Author: Christine Bye – historian, University of Alberta
FYI: example of MA Program note the $$$$$$$ they give you to come!
Part of Christine Bye (author)’s inspiration for research: When attempting to purchase part of her family’s farmstead, she was refused on the basis of her gender; her parents wanted to “keep it in the family” so they only sold/gave the land to males in the family.
By the 1920s, farming had been prosperous BUT three phenomena set off The Great Depression era of the 1920-30s:
Who ran the stock market? Where were the women?
Today, world’s economy is most often measured according to the American Stock Market – has much changed?
WHEAT: Wheat prices plummeted on the stock market + unprecedented drought challenges.
Maritimers sent salt codfish to those in the Prairies.
Half of the male population left the farm to find work, which meant women became the “heads” of household.
…especially since women are largely absent from the pages of history, something Bye considers a loss for Canadian Prairie women during the Depression because letters and other documentation often misrepresent women as complainers.
Bye uses her great-grandmother’s letters as data in an attempt to understand the gender ideals during the Depression. Also, she discovers differences in how government assistded women in the USA and Canada; American government offered more compassion and material relief than Canadian officials.
Traditional gender roles were strongly internalized. Only two roles were represented as norm: female and male. Male = dominant
“Rural society touted men as farmers and breadwinners in the 1930s, but often it was women who kept their families on the land.” Women were proud of their contribution to the family farm in the Bread Basket of Canada.
Bye’s great grandmother married at 19 and moved to McCord, Sask., near the USA border.Research reflexivity: If those ideals about marrying young were still intact, what would you be doing this year?
Even though women assumed the breadwinner roles and responsibilities during the Depression. BUT:
Canadian Government: women’s work was just what they did as part of their gender role and was worth little to no monetary value
This ideal was prevalent among rural farm women during the Depression, despite the fact that women and land were still considered legal properties of men.
Women generally worked in the house, raised the children, and did a limited amount of farming, though a more inclusive history would likely show that they did more work out than what we realize today.
However, role overlap occurred. It was considered “helping out” the other gender, and was not considered serious farming or serious housework. …ever hear this today: Dad is babysitting his own children?
This is a good example of a “tension” or “problem” for sociologists to explore:
Today, we continue construct males as heads of households in phone books and in news stories. How does this exert a social force on men to be a certain way, act a certain way?
Canada: B y this year, “only two studies have explored the differences in suicide rates between urban and farm samples in Canada. Pickett and Brison (1993) examined suicide rates on Ontario farms from 1980 to 1989 and Pickett, King, et al. (1999) explored the suicide rates for Canadian farm operators via an epidemiologic study” (Sturgeon $ Morrissette, 2010). This means there are no reliable stats and too many confounds in too few studies to generate a report that unpacks all the variables (http://www4.agr.gc.ca/resources/prod/doc/pol/consult/miss/pdf/c15.pdf)
The Pickett study mentioned above
One report out of Truro, NS: Canadian farmers (males) commit suicide “more than twice the national average.”
and the Canadian Farm Health and Safety Project finds that: “… suicide rate for [some groups of Canadian] farmers of 40/100,000 is considerably higher than that of the general population at 18/100,000” http://www.newcomm.net/agricult/efpi/check.htm
In general, there is an average of 10 suicides per day in Canada, according to StatCan in 2008.
World Health Organization: farming one of the most dangerous occupations (WHO, 2006); more depression and stress.
Nova Scotia mental health resources LINK
Alberta mental health resources for male farmers in Grand Prairie LINK
(no similar links found specifically for female farmers)
Australia: pressures on male farmers (video 3.5 minutes long) (2007 report http://www.abc.net.au/mediawatch/transcripts/s1869891.htmlevery four days, an Australian male farmer commits suicide
India stats - every 32 minutes, a male farmer commits suicide – based on 2005 data; note the gender implication in the link 2007 report LINK
Also in India, “[s]uicide among female farmers is on the rise.”LINK to study: “Studies of women in farming have found high levels of stress, fatigue and depression. Explanations most commonly given are role conflicts and high work load. Farm women, unlike men, experience stress not only due to the farm operations but also due to the impact of farming stressors on the physical, social and financial wellbeing of all family members.”