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Equipment - 1

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  1. Equipment - 1 • Site clearing, development of access, shaping of the site, foundation excavation, and hoisting and handling materials all involve the use of a large number of highly efficient and versatile equipment. • The proper selection of these equipment and the length of time they will have to be used are an essential part of the estimator’s work. BCN 5618

  2. Equipment - 2 • The construction equipment used on a project may be owned, leased, or rented by a contractor. • The cost of contractor-provided equipment to a project must be passed on to the client in the form of equipment charges that are included within a bid. BCN 5618

  3. Buy, Lease, or Rent • Availability of cash for down payment or outright purchase • current interest rates on loans or installment purchase plans • current rental and lease rates • income tax benefits • expected usage of the equipment • the expected life of the equipment BCN 5618

  4. Ownership • Ownership of the equipment can be an economic drain if the equipment is underutilized, becomes obsolescent, or is subject to frequent breakdown as so often happens when kept too long. BCN 5618

  5. Selecting Equipment • -Volume of work to be performed. The size of the job will influence both individual size and numbers of production units. • -Job conditions. Each equipment best suited for certain job conditions. • -Current Inventory of Equipment. The contractor will attempt to use any available owned or on-hand leased equipment. • -Project Schedule. Required job completion date may force use of larger numbers of sizes of equipment. BCN 5618

  6. BCN 5618

  7. Track Type Tractors • Primarily used for Earth moving operations. • Come in many various sizes, from a small D3 to a very large D11. • Very expensive to own and lease. • Need qualified highly paid operators. BCN 5618

  8. Track-Type Tractors BCN 5618

  9. BCN 5618

  10. Loaders • Used for earthmoving and loading. • Can be used as integrated tool carriers. • Available in many sizes and configurations. • “Easily” maintained • Operator “friendly” BCN 5618

  11. Loaders BCN 5618

  12. BCN 5618

  13. Backhoe Loaders • Very common piece of equipment • Many subcontractors own/lease • Very versatile • Easily transported • “Low” maintenance costs • Operator “friendly” • Easily rented BCN 5618

  14. Backhoe Loaders BCN 5618

  15. Other Equipment • Dump trucks • Various hauling operations. • Compactors • to consolidates soils in fills, road bases, etc. • Excavator • Used primarily for digging but can be used for demolition with attachments. • Motor grader • Shaping of subgrades, shoulders, ditches, and backslopes; maintenance of construction roads. BCN 5618

  16. BCN 5618

  17. BCN 5618

  18. Transportation Considerations • Maximum width in Florida 102” or 8’5 • Loads over 10’ width require permit • Loads over 12’ width require escort • Maximum height is 13’6 • Loads up to 15’ require permit and routing • Loads over 15’ require police escort, 50 mile limit • Maximum length of trailer is 53’, overall 74’ • Maximum weight is 80,000 gross • overweight requirepermit • overweight fines over 80,000 BCN 5618

  19. Transportation Costs • “Standard” equipment: • Not more than 10’ high • Not more than 8’ wide • Not more than 50,000# • Approximately $150 per hour 3 hour min. BCN 5618

  20. Transportation costs cont.. • “Non Standard” Equipment • Over 10’ high • Over 9’ wide • Over 60,000# • Approximately $250 per hour 3 hour min, plus permits and escorts. BCN 5618

  21. Cranes • Cranes have been one of the most important and widely used pieces of erection equipment since they were first invented. • Every construction job should be looked at on an individual basis before a crane is selected. All variables should be considered. BCN 5618

  22. Mobile Cranes • Can travel freely throughout the job site and on the highway. • Do not have to follow a pre-determined path. BCN 5618

  23. Mobile Cranes • They are best suited for rural areas, where movement is necessary. • Not well suited for city construction because they have to step back to lift loads over the top of buildings. Usually there is no room for this in a dense city environment. BCN 5618

  24. Latticed Boom Cranes • Have high production rates, easy operation, and have a large range of potential uses to the owner. • Typically used to: • load sand and gravel at concrete batching plants • load and unload ships • demolish buildings • Usually mounted to truck or crawler base BCN 5618

  25. Lattic BCN 5618

  26. Telescoping Cantilevered Boom Cranes BCN 5618

  27. Telescoping Cantilevered Boom Cranes • Commonly referred to as cherry pickers, zoom booms, or hydraulic cranes. • Can be mounted on any type of carrier or base. • Made of several sections that fit into one another • Virtually no erection and dismantling is needed, saving labor costs. BCN 5618

  28. Tower Cranes BCN 5618

  29. Tower Cranes • Are best suited for city construction • Work well in confined spaces and have virtually no height limit in the buildings that they can build. • Can operate in higher wind conditions than mobile cranes. BCN 5618

  30. Bases and Mountings for Tower Cranes • Static Base • used with fixed type towers • Tower is rigidly anchored to foundation • no limit to height of crane • Traveling Base • moves on rails • Climbing Base • climbs up structure as construction progresses BCN 5618

  31. Static Base BCN 5618

  32. Traveling Base • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8lpz-cclsSI BCN 5618

  33. Climbing Base BCN 5618

  34. Crane Related Accidents • Accidents on construction sites that are related to crane and rigging equipment: • electrocution • overturning • overloading • falls • dropping loads • Most of these accidents are preventable with a proper safety program and training. BCN 5618

  35. Equipment Productivity Factors affecting rate of production of a piece of equipment: • site conditions • the nature of material being processed • the condition of equipment • operator ability. BCN 5618

  36. Determining Productivity • Equipment productivity can be measured in two ways: • On-site: It is measured over a sufficient period to establish reasonably accurate figures. • Off-site: It is estimated based on productivity data that has been generated from past company experience or which has been made available from manufacturer. Manufacturer's productivity rates are based on ideal conditions. Such rates should be multiplied by a numerical efficiency factor. BCN 5618

  37. Job efficiency factors for earthmoving operations BCN 5618

  38. Ownership Costs • Fixed Costs: are associated with owning the equipment and are incurred whether or not the equipment is operational. • Depreciation • Interest charges on borrowed money • Insurance • Taxes • Storage and transportation to site BCN 5618

  39. Operating Cost • Fuel • Maintenance Services • Repairs • Tires • Operator's wages BCN 5618

  40. EQUIPMENT LEASING • A lease normally involves a long period of time, usually approximating the economic life. • With a lease, the depreciation and interest components are replaced completely by the lease payments. Other fixed costs (taxes, licenses, permits, insurance, parking and storage) still remain. Operating costs are also lessee's responsibility and will be handled the same as for owned equipment. BCN 5618

  41. EQUIPMENT RENTAL • Rental is the ideal option for short-term equipment need. The rates per unit time are higher than for leasing. • Under most rental agreements, all fixed costs are included within the rental fee. • Maintenance and repair normally are rental agency responsibilities, as would be tires. • Fuel, oil and lubrication costs generally will be the only operating costs (other than the operator himself) to be paid by the renter. BCN 5618