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Chapter 1. Introducing Hardware. You Will Learn…. That a computer requires both hardware and software to work About the many different hardware components inside and connected to a computer How the CPU works and how it communicates with other devices. Hardware Needs Software.

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chapter 1

Chapter 1

Introducing Hardware

you will learn
You Will Learn…
  • That a computer requires both hardware and software to work
  • About the many different hardware components inside and connected to a computer
  • How the CPU works and how it communicates with other devices
communication between hardware and software
Communication Between Hardware and Software
  • Binary number system
  • ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange)
  • Hexadecimal notation (hex)
pc hardware components
PC Hardware Components
  • Input/output
  • Processing
  • Storage
  • Electrical supply
  • Communication
elements required for hardware devices to operate
Elements Required for Hardware Devices to Operate
  • Method for the CPU to communicate with the device
  • Software to instruct and control the device
  • Electricity to power the device
hardware used for input and output
Hardware Used forInput and Output
  • Most resides outside computer case
  • Communicates through a port or a wireless connection
hardware inside the computer case
Hardware Inside the Computer Case
  • Motherboard (CPU, memory)
  • Permanent storage (floppy, hard, CD-ROM drives)
  • Power supply
  • Circuit boards
  • Cables
the motherboard
The Motherboard
  • Largest and most important circuit board
  • Contains the CPU, with which all devices must communicate
ports provided by motherboard to outside of case
Ports Provided by Motherboard to Outside of Case
  • Serial
  • Parallel
  • USB
  • Game
  • Keyboard
  • Mouse
major components of motherboards
Major Components of Motherboards
  • For processing
    • CPU (performs most actual data processing)
    • Chip set (supports CPU by controlling system board activities)
  • For temporary storage
    • RAM


major components of motherboards21
Major Components of Motherboards
  • To allow CPU to communicate with other devices
    • Traces or wires
    • Expansion slots
    • System clock
  • Electrical system
    • Power supply connections
  • Programming and setup data
    • Flash ROM
    • CMOS setup chip
storage devices
Storage Devices
  • Primary storage (temporary)
    • Temporarily holds data and instructions as CPU processes them
    • Also called memory or RAM
  • Secondary storage (permanent)
primary storage
Primary Storage
  • RAM storage
    • SIMMs (single inline memory modules)
    • DIMMs (dual inline memory modules)
    • RIMMs (manufactured by Rambus)
secondary storage devices
Secondary Storage Devices
  • Hard disks
  • Floppy disks
  • Zip drives
  • CD-ROMs
  • DVDs
hard drive
Hard Drive
  • Most use EIDE (Enhanced Integrated Drive Electronics) technology, which can accommodate up to four IEDE devices on one system
motherboard components used for communication among devices
Motherboard Components Used for Communication Among Devices
  • Bus
  • System clock
  • Expansion slots
    • PCI: High-speed input/output devices
    • AGP: Video card
    • ISA: Older and/or slower devices
system clock
System Clock
  • Synchronizes activity on the motherboard
  • Controls pace of activity by sending continuous pulses over the bus that different components use
interface expansion cards
Interface (Expansion) Cards
  • Enable CPU to connect to external devices or to a network
  • Determine function by looking at the end of the card that fits against back of computer case
the electrical system
The Electrical System
  • Power supply (most important component)
    • Provides power for the computer
      • Receives 110-120 volts AC and converts it to lower DC voltage that the computer can handle
    • Runs a fan to help cool inside of computer case
instructions and data stored on the motherboard
Instructions and Data Stored on the Motherboard
  • Provide rudimentary information about setup of computer
  • Start computer
  • Search for an OS
  • Stored on special ROM chips:
    • By setting physical switches on the board (jumpers and DIP switches)
    • Using CMOS configuration chips
rom bios chips
  • Hybrid of hardware and software with embedded programming
  • Called firmware
chapter summary
Chapter Summary
  • Hardware used for input and output
  • Hardware inside the computer case
  • The motherboard, CPU, and chip set
  • Storage devices
  • Motherboard components used for communication among devices


chapter summary63
Chapter Summary
  • Interface (expansion) cards
  • The electrical system
  • Instructions and data stored on the motherboard