The Vespucci 2020 Vision for Digital Earth: Social and Institutional Issues
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The Vespucci 2020 Vision for Digital Earth: Social and Institutional Issues. What is Paradise?. “ Nel mezzo del cammin di nostra vita mi ritrovai per una selva oscura ché la diritta via era smarrita. Ahi quanto a dir qual era è cosa dura esta selva selvaggia e aspra e forte

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What is paradise l.jpg
What is Paradise? Institutional Issues

“Nel mezzo del cammin di nostra vita

mi ritrovai per una selva oscura

ché la diritta via era smarrita.

Ahi quanto a dir qual era è cosa dura

esta selva selvaggia e aspra e forte

che nel pensier rinova la paura!

Tant'è amara che poco è più morte;

ma per trattar del ben ch'i' vi trovai,

dirò de l'altre cose ch'i' v'ho scorte.”


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Virtual Globe = (def) digital collection of data and services contextualized within a global (spatial?) view of a world

Virtual Collaborative Globe = virtual globe that allows collaborative participation


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Today´s virtual globes services contextualized within a global (spatial?) view of a world

Virtual Globes

OpenStreetMap

Wikimapia


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Today´s Virtual Globe limitations services contextualized within a global (spatial?) view of a world

No current state of the earth (time is missing and data comes from diverse sources)

No exploration inside the building

Data is not generally accessible

No indication of data provenance

No interaction between people (including sharing of data)

No indication of trust and quality


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GIScience provides crucial links between nature and society services contextualized within a global (spatial?) view of a world

Nature: Physical equations

Describe processes

Society: Decisions on how to

Use Earth´s resources


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The 2020 Vision for Digital Earth: services contextualized within a global (spatial?) view of a worldSocial and Institutional Issues

Maximize open access and participative infrastructures

Produce information to address digital divides

Enable multiple connected globes/infrastructures

Deliver data, services and models tailored to communities of practice.

Emphasize societal benefit areas (e.g., ecosystems, health)

Be based on environmental-friendly technologies

Use Digital Earth as a laboratory for multi-disciplinary science


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Open access and participative infrastructures services contextualized within a global (spatial?) view of a world

Practice: Need to overcome institutional barriers

Ideal: spatial data available as open access and shared between communities


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Open access and services contextualized within a global (spatial?) view of a worldparticipative infrastructures

What did we learn from our fathers?

A penny saved is a penny earned


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Open access and services contextualized within a global (spatial?) view of a worldparticipative infrastructures

LANDSAT data archive (USGS)

The Anti-Uncle Scrooge

Principle

A pixel unused is a penny wasted


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Open access and services contextualized within a global (spatial?) view of a worldparticipative infrastructures

The cost of data distribution in the Web is zero

Uncle Scrooge and the Web: value comes from use!


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What is a public good? services contextualized within a global (spatial?) view of a world

Non-rival

...[goods] which all enjoy in common in the sense that each individual's consumption of such a good leads to no subtractions from any other individual's consumption of that good... (Samuelson)

Non-excludable

it is impossible to exclude any individuals from consuming the good


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Almost all spatial data are public goods services contextualized within a global (spatial?) view of a world


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Open access and services contextualized within a global (spatial?) view of a worldparticipative infrastructures

ASTER-DEM 30 x 30 m

STRM 90 x 90 m


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services contextualized within a global (spatial?) view of a worldScientists have models for estimating the amount of carbon released into the atmosphere when a given plot of land is razed. This information can now be extracted fairly accurately from satellite images.

Access to information will be critical. A few satellites can cover the entire globe, but there needs to be a system in place to ensure their images are readily available to everyone who needs them. Brazil has set an important precedent by making its Earth-observation data available, and the rest of the world should follow suit.”


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Open access and participative infrastructures: some predictions for 2020

Citizens and global forces are drivers of change

Global satellite data in 5 meter+ willbe open

Geodemographicsanalysiswidelyavailable

Officialspatial data willbemostly open


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Information to address digital divides predictions for 2020

Ideal: communities know what affects them, promote positive changes and react to negative prospects

Practice: communities have limited knowledge about their territory and its potential futures


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Information to address digital divides predictions for 2020

The goal of development is the promotion and expansion of valuable capabilities. Capability is the freedom to achieve valuable beings and doings.

(Amartya Sen)


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Impacts of global environmental change predictions for 2020

By 2020 in Africa, agriculture yields could be cut by up to 50%

sources: IPCC and WMO


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Information to address digital divides predictions for 2020

How to promoteand expand valuable capabilities in Digital Earth?

Practice: Open source and open access promote capacity building

Caveat: OS and OA are not substitutes for sound research


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Enable multiple connected globes predictions for 2020

The Earth is a system of systems


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Enable multiple connected globes predictions for 2020

Institutional portals (e.g., GEOportal)

Contribution-based portals (e.g., Google)


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11,000 predictions for 2020landstations (3000 automated)

900 radiosondes, 3000 aircraft

6000 ships, 1300 buoys

5 polar, 6 geostationary satellites

Weather and climate

source: WMO



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High Risk of Re-emergence of Infectious Diseases predictions for 2020

Some in connection with El Niño/La Niña events

Choléra

Dengue

Meningitus

Emphasize societal benefit areas

World Population at risk: 2 to 3 billions

Human Mortality per yr: 3.5 to 4.5 millions

with ½ under 5 yrs (~ 5 millions due to AIDS)

Animal Mortality per yr: 10 to 15 millions

  • World Population at risk: 2 to 3 billions

  • Human Mortality per yr: 3.5 to 4.5 millions

    with ½ under 5 yrs (~ 5 millions due to AIDS)

  • Animal Mortality per yr: 10 to 15 millions



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Data, services and models tailored to communities of practice

Network of sensors that observe, record and disseminate geographically referenced information


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ARGOS Data practiceCollection System (16000 plats)

650,000 messages

processed daily


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Data collection services practice

Tracking

Positions collected over a fixed period of time

Monitoring

Data from remote stations, fixed or mobile



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Data, services and models tailored to communities of practice

Athmosphere, ocean, chemistry climate model (resolution 200 x 200 km)

Atmosphere only climate model

(resolution 50 x 50 km)

Regional climate model

Resolution e.g 10 x 10 km

Hydrology, Vegetation

Soil Topography (e.g, 1 x 1 km)

Regional land use change

Socio-economic changes

Adaptative responses (e.g., 10 x 10 m)

Models: From Global to Local



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Digital Earth as a laboratory for multi-disciplinary science practice

Improve

existing models

Create new

models

Increase model

interoperability

Model

Web


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Digital Earth as a laboratory for multi-disciplinary science practice

“Google Earth will not be the next ArcGIS” (Ed Parsons)

Will the new generation of GIS be more like Google Earth?


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Open Globe practice

(def) collection of trusted spatial data and services, available operationally and reliably on a open access policy


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Open Globes practice

Virtual Globes

OpenStreetMap

Wikimapia


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Open Globes practice

Virtual Globes

Data + services

(can only be provided reliably by organizations

that are trusted)

?

visibility,

communication,

acessibility

Scientists as policy-makers

(peer-reviewed results)

Citizens as sensors

(perception, individual actions)


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Shall we perish in the hell of discord? practice

Siena Cathedral (pulpito de Luca Pisano)

Lasciate ogne speranza, voi ch'intrate!


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Or shall we be saved by our actions? practice

Siena Cathedral (pulpito de Luca Pisano)


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O buono Appollo, a l'ultimo lavoro practice

fammi del tuo valor sì fatto vaso,

come dimandi a dar l'amato alloro


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