Digital Map Data from Vehicle Probes
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Digital Map Data from Vehicle Probes. Yuka Gomi Ygomi LLC August 7, 2001. Vehicle Usage of Map Data. Established uses Vehicle navigation using a CD, DVD or other media Emergency roadside assistance Off-board telematics services Emerging uses (this decade)

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Digital Map Data from Vehicle Probes

Yuka Gomi

Ygomi LLCAugust 7, 2001

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Vehicle Usage of Map Data

  • Established uses

    • Vehicle navigation using a CD, DVD or other media

    • Emergency roadside assistance

    • Off-board telematics services

  • Emerging uses (this decade)

    • Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS)

    • Traffic - aware dynamic route guidance

    • Situational awareness for driver workload

  • Eventual uses (next decade)

    • Active safety products

    • Collision avoidance

    • Road departure prevention

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ADAS Applications That Will Use Map Data

  • Adaptive Cruise Control

  • Adaptive Light Control

  • Night Vision

  • Transmission Assistance

  • Intersection Collision Warning

  • Lane/Road Departure Detection and Warning

  • Front and Rear Collision Warning

  • Braking and Stability Control Assistance

  • Increase Fuel Efficiency

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Digital Maps for ADAS

  • Digital maps will play a major role in ADAS

    • Comprehensive view of possible paths

    • View of desired path according to

      • Programmed route from the navigation system

      • Inference from driver indications

      • Driver intent input to sensors

    • Knowledge of road conditions ahead

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What Map Data will Bring

  • Prediction Capability

    • Preview of up-coming curves beyond the driver’s line of sight

      • Curve shape

      • Curve direction and radius

      • Potential maneuvers and decision making points (e.g., intersections)

    • Road characteristics and special attributes

      • Road type (highway, highway ramp, local roads, etc.)

      • Lane number, width, and type, speed limit, road grade, etc.

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Situational Awareness (1)

Database provides a picture of the road ahead relative to vehicle location

Busy / dangerous intersections Predicts lane changes & merges

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Situational Awareness (2)

  • Map data provides a picture of the road ahead to help understand the type of driving environment and level of attention required by the driver currently and in the next minute.

  • Analysis and continuous monitoring of the vehicle’s environment provides an understanding of what the driver is doing and should be doing. This information provides priorities for vehicle functions in situations where the driver might be surprised or over his/her task management ability.

    • What is the driver doing besides driving (e.g., talking on the phone, receiving directions, listening to the radio)?

    • What are the conditions that the driver is facing (e.g., wet pavement, rain, darkness, winding roads, hills, fog)?

    • What are the impending conditions that will be added to the driver’s workload (e.g., hidden intersection, stop and go traffic, complex exit)?

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Situational Awareness (3)

  • Map data and information from monitoring the driving environment can be combined to dynamically determine

    • Is the driver in hectic stop and go traffic with many cars cutting in and out of the lane or in a low pressure country road driving the speed limit?

    • Is the driver entering or exiting an expressway or about to merge on a busy road?

    • What is the driver doing and how much more can she/he handle?

    • Should an incoming cellular call be held for a few seconds until the driver is through the upcoming interchange merge?

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Situational Awareness (4)

  • All on-board functions must interrelate via the vehicle network

  • Communication between functions is essential for a comprehensive understanding of the road situation to allow

    • Simple human interfaces

      • Straightforward request entry

      • Easy to use answers

    • Safe human interfaces

      • Prevent email use when the driver is exceeding a safe speed

      • Defer phone ringing as the driver is negotiating an icy turn

      • Careful integration of functions ensure that the driver has attention capacity left to spend on safe driving

  • Result is a situationally aware vehicle

    • Can control demands on the driver

    • Can regulate the driver’s use of information, entertainment, telematics, phone, etc.

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Merging traffic on

entrance ramp

Traffic incident

middle lane

Left lane of

3 lane road



Reduce speed to

50 kph ahead

124m: left curve

375 m ahead

What the Vehicle Sees

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Start&End Points


Node A










Change of

number of lanes








Start&End Points


Electronic horizon

Shape points

Sample Of Predictive Map Capabilities

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Road Preview and Path Prediction (1)

  • Map data enables vehicle applications to preview the road ahead

    • Configuration of the road (e.g., curvature and curve radius)

    • Attributes along the road (e.g., speed limits)

    • Future predicted position of the vehicle

  • Map data and centimeter accurate positioning allow vehicle applications to

    • Use upcoming road conditions

    • Calculate data relevant to vehicle functions

    • Optimize performance in various road situations

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Road Preview and Path Prediction (2)

  • Knowledge of the vehicle’s current and near future situation can allow the vehicle to prevent accidents:

    • Intersection collision avoidance

    • Forward collision avoidance

    • Lane departure prevention

    • Road departure prevention

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Technology Trends

  • Map data collection technology enhancements by using probe data from vehicles

    • Improved location accuracy and reliability

    • Improved reliability of data at a reduced cost

  • Vehicle technology enhancements

    • Improved sensing capabilities

    • Improved vision capabilities for extraction of accurate data from road scenes

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Probe Data


Map updates

  • Updates are applied to the data as part of core data collection when validated





  • Direct access to the most up to date data available

Raw data


Qualified, updated

map data and

location based content






Vehicle as a

data probe

Data Feedback Loop for Updating

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Data Feedback Loop generated by vehicles

  • Vehicles as probes leads to

    • Current, highly accurate data

    • Increased reliability

    • Data that can be gold plated

  • Vehicles as probes results in

    • Continual improvement in data reliability

    • Increase in content

    • Evolution of dynamic data for active safety functions

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Consortium Activities generated by vehicles

  • Next Map (European Project) - Started January 2000

    • Project purpose is to evaluate the technical and commercial feasibility of enhanced map data for safety applications.

    • Vehicle manufacturer partners: BMW, DaimlerChrysler, Fiat, Jaguar, Renault

  • Enhanced Digital Map (EDMap) (USDOT sponsored IVI Project) - Started April 2001

    • Project purpose is to determine safety application performance improvements and extensions using enhanced map data.

    • Vehicle manufacturer partners: DaimlerChrysler, GM, Ford, Toyota

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Conclusions generated by vehicles

  • Usage of map data is moving beyond navigation.

  • ADAS applications are part of this trend.

  • Safety applications will require a central map server for timely creation and delivery of map and location based data updates.

  • The need for up-to-date road network data requires the use of vehicles as probes.

  • Situational awareness can provide data relevant to driver workload.

  • Vehicle manufacturers will have complete, accurate map data.

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The Vehicle Manufacturers Will Know generated by vehicles

  • Road usage

    • Current traffic

    • Predictions

  • Road geometry for every road

    • Precision to a few centimeters

    • Lane configuration

    • Road edge

    • Shoulder

  • Road conditions for every road

    • Pavement status

      • Detailed by lane, shoulder, edge

      • Change

      • Failures and damage

    • Surface (icy, slippery)

  • Micro weather

    • Temperature

    • Precipitation

  • Road furniture for every road

    • Every sign

    • Sign removal

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The Future of ITS generated by vehicles

Christine M. Johnson

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Everyone needs data generated by vehicles!

Precision Weather Response

Military -- Cutting deployment time from 60 days to 72 hrs.

  • Growth in Costal evacuation needs

Precision Medical Response

National Park Management

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Data generated by vehicles

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From Spots of data generated by vehicles

To a nationwide network of data

A Public Private Partnership

Themes for reauthorization: Data

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Data Available Nationally From Vehicle Manufacturers in Ten Years

  • No infrastructure

  • Can be made available through a public private partnership with DOT

  • Can be used for

    • Traffic management

    • Maintenance

    • Response

    • Planning