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Using Crosswalks for Alignment – Pros and Cons. Consortia Conference Call March 15, 2005 Regie Stites SRI International. What is a Crosswalk?. A crosswalk (or content mapping) is a relatively simple procedure that typically involves: Content analysis Side-by-side comparison

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using crosswalks for alignment pros and cons

Using Crosswalks for Alignment – Pros and Cons

Consortia Conference Call

March 15, 2005

Regie Stites

SRI International

what is a crosswalk
What is a Crosswalk?
  • A crosswalk (or content mapping) is a relatively simple procedure that typically involves:
    • Content analysis
    • Side-by-side comparison
  • A crosswalk is not all there is to alignment
4 uses for crosswalks
4 Uses for Crosswalks
  • Compare standards and standards
    • New standards to old standards
    • Your standards to other states’ standards
  • Compare standards and curriculum
    • Content standards to curriculum frameworks
  • Compare standards to assessments
    • Content standards to assessment content
  • Compare standards or assessments to external benchmarks
    • Adult ed standards to K-12 or vocational skill standards
    • Adult ed standards to proficiency or certification standards
some pros
Some Pros

Crosswalks should be used to …

  • Clearly and simply communicate connections
    • Crosswalks are useful for explaining and training on standards
  • Reveal gaps and suggest filler
    • Crosswalks are useful for writing and revising standards
  • Support an argument for face validity
    • Crosswalks are useful for getting buy-in on standards
some cons
Some Cons

Crosswalks should not be used to …

  • Link standards and assessments
    • Crosswalks are not good for calibrating standards to test content
  • Write standards to match test content
    • This is not good practice no matter how it is done
  • Support an argument for external validity
    • Crosswalks are too superficial to support external validity
some examples
Some Examples
  • Aligning standards with standards
    • Iowa crosswalk of employability standards and career development standards
  • Aligning curriculum content with standards
    • Ohio crosswalk of state Reading standard with ABLE program curricular materials and activities
  • Aligning assessment content with standards
    • Massachusetts crosswalk of ESOL Curriculum with ESOL Standardized Tests
iowa crosswalk of employability skills and career development standards
Iowa Crosswalk of Employability Skills and Career Development Standards

Excerpted from Iowa Department of Education School to Work Initiative

http://www.state.ia.us/educate/ecese/stw/pdf/crosswalk.pdf

aligning curriculum to ohio s revised standard for reading
Aligning Curriculum to Ohio’s Revised Standard for Reading

Excerpted from O-PAS - Gallia-Jackson-Vinton JVSD ABLE Program

http://literacy.kent.edu/opas/gjv.html

slide9

W = test item measures the standard WELLM = test item measures the standard MODERATELY WELLI = test item measures the standard INDIRECTLY (i.e., test item is intended to measure something else, but in so doing, measures this learning standard as well)

Excerpted from Dori McCormack’s (2002) Report on ESOL Curriculum Framework

and ESOL Standardized Tests - MADOE

webb s criteria
Webb’s Criteria
  • Categorical concurrence
    • Extent to which assessment items address same content as standards
  • Depth-of-knowledge consistency
    • Extent to which cognitive complexity of responses to assessment tasks matches what learners should know and be able to do as stated in the standard
  • Range-of-knowledge correspondence
    • Proportion of indicators of standards covered by assessment items
  • Balance of representation
    • Extent to which assessment items are distributed evenly across indicators
some resources
Some Resources
  • Norman L. Webb (1999). Alignment of Science and Mathematical Standards in Four States

http://www.ccsso.org/content/pdfs/AlignmentPaper.pdf

  • CCSSO Alignment Analysis Web page

http://www.ccsso.org/Projects/Alignment_Analysis/

  • Ohio Performance and Accountability System (O-PAS), Adult Basic and Literacy Education

http://literacy.kent.edu/opas/

  • Career and Life Skills Standards Crosswalk (Hawaii Department of Education)

http://wetserver.net/doe/website/livefiles/crosswalk_training_37.pdf