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AP World History Exam Study Session #14 PowerPoint Presentation
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AP World History Exam Study Session #14

AP World History Exam Study Session #14

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AP World History Exam Study Session #14

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  1. AP World History Exam Study Session #14 The End of the Cold War and Globalization

  2. End of the Cold War THE END OF THE COLD WAR • 1980s—Cold War ended • Caused by: • Lack of Soviet commitment • Soviet Union was weakened • By independence movements • By their invasion of Afghanistan • They wanted to create a buffer in response to Iran’s revolution

  3. China distanced itself from the Soviet Union • US continued its aggressive stance in the late 1970s and early 1980s • Denounced Soviets for human rights violations • Negotiated arms limitations • Military spending soared under Reagan • “Reagan doctrine” promised help to any group fighting communism

  4. 1985—Soviet Union began to collapse • Mikhail Gorbachev took charge and turned toward the West • Announced glasnost, which meant openness • Began perestroika, or economic restructuring • Lowered military spending • Used more foreign investment • Reformed agriculture • 1990—Gorbachev was elected president • Unrest among minorities rose, partially because of economic problems

  5. Gorbachev’s programs had clear results outside the USSR • Bulgaria, Hungary, East Germany, Czechoslovakia, and Poland moved away from communism or abandoned it altogether • Some countries retained communism under new, more moderate regimes • Berlin Wall came down • 1991—Germany was reunited

  6. Ethnic clashes occurred in many areas • Yugoslavia was torn apart by violence • Gorbachev gave Soviet bloc nations the right to self-determination • 1990s—Period of economic uncertainty • 1991—There was an unsuccessful coup attempt • Gorbachev’s leadership was contested by leaders of the Soviet republics • Boris Yeltsin declared that the Soviet Union was dead and that a new commonwealth should be created

  7. Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) was created • Threatened from the outset by challenges from the Ukraine and Kazakhstan • Late 1990s—Economic difficulties challenged Yeltsin’s leadership • War with Chechnya broke out • 1999—Vladimir Putin came to power • Exerted more control on the media and society • Opposed Chechen calls for independence

  8. THE SPREAD OF DEMOCRACY • Communism, fascism, and democracy were rival forms of government for most of the 20th century • Democracy was the most popular form chosen • US supported some non-democratic countries • Democracy didn’t succeed everywhere • Latin America experienced problems that challenged the validity of democracy for that region

  9. THE GREAT POWERS AND NEW DISPUTES • Regional rivalries appeared with the end of the Cold War • New problems emerged with the collapse of the USSR • Armenia and Azerbaijan faced ethnic hostility • Yugoslavia dissolved as ethnic and religious groups faced off • Slovenia, Croatia, Serbia, and Bosnia-Herzegovina became independent • Another conflict erupted in Kosovo between Albanian nationalists and Serbians

  10. Old rivalries continued in some parts of the world • Iraq defeated Iran in a war • They invaded Kuwait, which led to the Persian Gulf War in 1991 • US won • Israeli-Palestinian struggles continue

  11. India and Pakistan have fought over border areas like Kashmir • New conflicts arose elsewhere • European countries faced separatist or nationalist movements • Immigration, especially from former colonies, caused violence in Europe • Violent conflicts have plagued Africa • US is currently fighting the “War on Terror” in Iraq and Afghanistan • Also to a lesser extent in Pakistan

  12. THE US AS SOLE SUPERPOWER • Russia devoted less money to military spending, while the US maintained its spending • Fear of US aggression has led to new alliances • UN may have the ability to counter US power but its role isn’t secure • US has been reluctant to sign international agreements that may interfere with its sovereignty

  13. Terrorism against the US has increased • 9/11 targeted the World Trade Center and the Pentagon • “War on Terror” has become an important element of US international relations • International community supported our efforts in Afghanistan, but criticized our efforts in Iraq

  14. Globalization and Resistance CAUSES AND EFFECTS • Globalization is the increasing interconnectedness of people and places • Internationalism has replaced nationalism

  15. Causes: • China and former Soviet countries entered the international community • Only a few countries declined to join the global economy • Technological improvements increased • International investments have increased drastically • Comprise 40% of US investments

  16. Effects of globalization: • Multinational corporations have become powerful • Seek cheap labor and flexible environmental policies • Multinationals are sometimes more powerful than the countries where they operate • Outsourcing and offshoring are used to hire cheap labor in developing countries • These demands have led to human rights issues like child labor

  17. Patterns of migration have continued • Large numbers of immigrants have led to tensions • Modern travel has made it easier to migrate, which has transformed earlier patterns of immigration • Cultural exchange has become widespread • English is often the language used in business and science • American culture has diffused throughout the world

  18. RESISTANCE AND ALTERNATIVES • Criticism of globalization has increased • 1999—Large rallies began • Based on environmental dangers, exploitation of cheap labor, and the growing gap between the rich and the poor • There is a growing gap between wealthy countries (in the north) and poor countries (in the south)

  19. Nationalism has remained a vital force in some areas like France • Religious movements have provided resistance to globalization • Fundamentalism has emerged in opposition to globalization • This can be within any religion • Generally increases intolerance and exclusivity • Has exacerbated hostility between or within people • Terrorism is increasingly motivated by religious causes

  20. THE GLOBAL ENVIRONMENT • Environmental impacts have changed more in degree than in kind • Industrialization has increased the scale of environmental hazards • i.e. Soviet Union and China • More and more natural resources are being used • Wealthy countries consume more and contribute more pollution than developing countries

  21. Greenhouse effect has increased • Causes the overheating of the earth • Sources include fossil fuel combustion and refrigeration • May cause rising sea levels and dramatic changes to vegetation • Rainforests are being destroyed at greater rates

  22. International environmental conferences have lacked support from the US and other key nations • Epidemics have become global issues • Including HIV/AIDS, SARS, and H1N1