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The Security Market Line (SML) aka The Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM). The Capital Asset Price Model is E(R A ) = R f + [ E(R M ) - R f ] x A Expected Return on Stock A = Riskfree rate + ( Expected Return on the Market - Riskfree Rate ) * Beta of stock A.

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the security market line sml aka the capital asset pricing model capm
The Security Market Line (SML) aka The Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM)
  • The Capital Asset Price Model is
  • E(RA ) = Rf+ [E(RM ) - Rf ] x A

Expected Return on Stock A = Riskfree rate +

(Expected Return on the Market - Riskfree Rate) * Beta of stock A

slide2
Most empirical tests find evidence inconsistent with CAPM.
      • Are testing procedures inadequate (How is Rm measured?)
      • Or is the CAPM not appropriate for understanding how stocks are priced in the market?
      • What are the alternatives to CAPM?
efficient market hypothesis emh
Efficient Market Hypothesis (EMH)
  • Definition 1: A market is said to be efficient with respect to some information set, It, if it is impossible to make economic profits on the basis of information set It.
    • Economic profits: Profits after adjusting for risk and transaction costs (such as, brokerage fees, investment advisory fees).
        • Economic profits = Actual return - Expected return - Transaction costs
        • Expected Return: CAPM provides one estimate of expected return. Other estimates: Arbitrage Pricing Theory, Historical Industry Returns.
emh continued
EMH continued:
  • Models of Expected Returns
    • CAPM:Expected return on stock i = Riskfree rate + (Beta of i with respect to Market)*(Expected return on Market - Riskfree rate)
    • APT:Expected return on stock i = Riskfree rate + (Beta of i with respect to Factor 1)*(Expected return on Factor 1 - Riskfree rate) + (Beta of i with respect to Factor 2)*(Expected return on Factor 2 - Riskfree rate) + ...
emh continued1
EMH continued
  • Models of Expected Returns
    • Historical Industry Returns: Expected Return on stock i = Average historical return of other firms in the same industry as company i.
emh continued2
EMH continued:
  • Information set:
    • Weak form of EMH : Past history of prices of the particular security.
    • Semistrong form of EMH: All publicly available information.
    • Strong form of EMH: All public and private information.
efficient market hypothesis
Efficient Market Hypothesis
  • Definition 2: If capital markets are efficient then purchase or sale of any security at the prevailing market price is a zero-NPV transaction.
  • Definition 3 (Technical definition): The capital market is efficient with respect to an information set if and only if revealing that information to all investors would change neither equilibrium prices nor portfolios.
slide8
S.P. Kothari and Jerold Warner, “Evaluating Mutual Fund Performance.” Evaluating-Mfunds.pdf

Using state-of-the-art techniques, can we detect superior mutual fund performance?

  • 100 basis points annual superior performance: Undetected.
  • 500 basis points: Detected once every three times.
  • 1500 basis points: Detected (almost) every time.
  • Ability to detect superior performance improves if one tracks a mutual fund’s stock trades.