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Semantics: The meanings of language. Deny A. Kwary http://www.kwary.net Airlangga University. Lexical Semantics. Semantic properties: The components of meaning of a word.

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semantics the meanings of language

Semantics: The meanings of language

Deny A. Kwary

http://www.kwary.net

Airlangga University

lexical semantics
Lexical Semantics
  • Semantic properties: The components of meaning of a word.
  • Semantic feature: A notational device for expressing the presence or absence of semantic properties by pluses and minuses.

E.g. baby is [+ young], [+ human], [– abstract].

example
Example

(a) widow, mother, sister, aunt, maid

(b) widower, father, brother, uncle, valet

  • The (a) and (b) words are “human”
  • The (a) words are “female”
  • The (b) words are “male”
exercise 1 a d pp 222 223
Exercise # 1, A- D, pp. 222-223

A. The (a) and (b) words are “male”

The (a) words are “human”

The (b) words are “animal”

B. The (a) words are [+ count]

The (b) words are [ - count]

C. The (a) words are “concrete”

The (b) words are “abstract”

D. The (a) and (b) words are “plant”

The (a) words are “tree”

The (b) words are “flower”

lexical relations 1
Lexical Relations (1)
  • Homophone: Different words pronounced the same but spelled differently, e.g. two and too.
  • Homograph: Different words spelled the same but pronounced differently, e.g. minute and minute.
  • Homonym: A word which has two or more unrelated meanings, e.g. club: ‘a social organization’ ; ‘a blunt weapon’.
  • Polisemy: A word which has two or more related meanings, e.g. bright: ‘shining’ ; ‘intelligent’
slide6

Lexical Relations (2)

  • Hyponym: Words whose meanings are specific instances of a more general word, e.g. isosceles and equilateral are hyponyms of the word triangle.
  • Metonym: A word substituted for another word with which it is closely associated, e.g. diamond for a baseball field.
  • Retronym: An expression that would once have been redundant, but which societal or technoligical changes have made nonredundant, e.g. silent movies movies  silent movies
synonym or antonym
Synonym or Antonym

Lexical Relations (3)

  • Flourish – thrive
  • Intelligent – stupid
  • Casual – informal
  • Flog – whip
  • Drunk – sober
  • synonym
  • antonym
  • synonym
  • synonym
  • antonym
semantic ambiguity
Semantic Ambiguity
  • An utterance which has more than one meaning