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Classroom Instruction that works Presenter: Mark Foseid Boise ID February 24, 2006 ABOUT COMPLEX REASONING PROCESSES IDENTIFYING SIMILARITIES AND DIFFERENCES Comparison Reasoning Classifying Reasoning Abstract Reasoning (metaphors, analogies) CUES, QUESTIONS, AND ADVANCED ORGANIZERS

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slide1

Classroom Instruction

that

works

Presenter: Mark Foseid

Boise ID

February 24, 2006

slide2

ABOUT

COMPLEX

REASONING

PROCESSES

slide3

IDENTIFYING SIMILARITIES AND DIFFERENCES

  • Comparison Reasoning
  • Classifying Reasoning
  • Abstract Reasoning (metaphors, analogies)

CUES, QUESTIONS, AND ADVANCED ORGANIZERS

  • Inductive Reasoning
  • Deductive Reasoning
  • Constructing Support Reasoning
  • Analyzing Perspectives Reasoning
  • Analyzing Errors Reasoning

GENERATING AND TESTING HYPOTHESES

  • Decision Making Reasoning
  • Problem Solving Reasoning
  • Invention Reasoning
  • Experimental Inquiry Reasoning
  • Investigation Reasoning
  • Systems Analysis Reasoning
slide4

IDENTIFYING SIMILARITIES & DIFFERENCES

Looking at similarities and differences among items (comparing), among lists of items (classifying), among chunks of information (abstracting).

Comparison Reasoning

Classifying Reasoning

Abstract Reasoning (metaphors, analogies)

slide5

CUES, QUESTIONS, ADVANCED ORGANIZERS

Drawing conclusions and making predictions using what we know

Inductive Reasoning

Deductive Reasoning

Generating and testing arguments and assertions

Constructing Support Reasoning

Analyzing Perspectives Reasoning

Analyzing Errors Reasoning

slide6

GENERATING AND TESTING HYPOTHESES

Taking an action when faced with a dilemma or need

Decision Making Reasoning

Problem Solving Reasoning

Invention Reasoning

Clarifying or explaining:

- phenomena observed;

- contradictions or confusions;

- relationships among parts

Experimental Inquiry Reasoning

Investigation Reasoning

Systems Analysis Reasoning

slide7

Stimulus Questions

to Help You Choose Reasoning Process

slide8

Stimulus Questions

to Help You Choose Reasoning Process

slide9

Stimulus Questions

to Help You Choose Reasoning Process

slide10

Stimulus Questions

to Help You Choose Reasoning Process

slide11

“We learn by doing if we reflect on what we have done” John Dewey

  • Organization:
  • Brief introduction to the process
  • A model for the process “Steps”
  • Graphic representation of the process
  • Examples of Classroom Activities
  • Rubric to assess the students use of the process
slide12

c

Comparing

Classifying

Analogy

Metaphor

: :

?

slide13

Identifying Similarities and Differences

Generalizations from the research:

  • Giving students with explicitguidance in identifying similarities and differences enhances their understanding of and ability to use knowledge.
  • Asking students to independently identify similarities and differences enhances their understanding of and ability to use knowledge.
  • Using graphic or symbolic forms to represent similarities and differences enhances student understanding of and ability to use knowledge.
  • Can be accomplished in a variety of ways and is a highly robust activity.
slide14

Identifying Similarities and Differences

Generalizations from the research:

Identifying Similarities and Differences can be accomplished in a variety of ways:

slide15

Mass and Weight are similar because they both:

Involve the amount of matter in an object. As

Mass increases, so does weight

Are measurable. Mass= (g.), Weight = (N)

Have a relationship with gravity.

Mass and Weight are different because

Mass is the amount of matter…doesn’t change

Weight is gravitational pull on an object…can

change

slide16

Food eaten during frontier days

Food eaten today

Characteristic _______________

Variety

Preservatives

Preparation

rubric for comparing
Rubric for Comparing

4

The student uses important, as well as some less obvious, characteristics to compare the items. The student accurately identifies the similarities and differences and explains his conclusions in a way that shows a complete and detailed understanding of the items.

The student uses important characteristics to compare the items. The student accurately identifies the similarities and differences and explains his conclusions.

3

rubric for comparing19
Rubric for Comparing

2

The student uses characteristics to compare the items, but not the most important characteristics. The student’s comparison and conclusions show some misconceptions about the items.

The student uses insignificant characteristics to compare the items. The student’s comparison and conclusions show many misconceptions that indicate the student does not understand the items.

1

slide20

Key Points: Comparing

  • Because the process of comparing can
  • be overused, it is important to ask if it is the best process to use to help students extend and refine the identified content knowledge.
  • Students need extensive modeling,
  • practice, and feedback in order to become skilled at identifying meaningful and interesting characteristics to use in comparison tasks.
  • Students should understand that the
  • purpose of doing a comparison task is to extend and refine knowledge. A questions such as, “What did you discover?” helps to reinforce this understanding.
slide21

The STEPSto Classifying Reasoning

Grouping items into definable categories on the basis of their attributes

  • 1. Identify the items you want to classify.
  • 2. Select what seems to be an important item and identify other items like it based on their attributes.
  • 3. State the rule that describes membership in this category.
  • 4. Select another item and identify others that are like it.
  • 5. State the rule that describes membership in this category.
  • Repeat the previous two steps until all items are classified and
  • each category has a rule that describes it.
  • 7. If necessary, combine categories or split them into smaller categories and state the rules for those categories.
slide22

Rubric for Classifying

4 The student organizes the items into meaningful categories and thoroughly describes the defining characteristics of each category. The student provides insightful conclusions about the classification.

3 The student organizes the items into meaningful categories and describes the defining characteristics of each category.

slide23

Rubric for Classifying

2 The student organizes the items into categories that are not very meaningful, but addresses some of the important characteristics of the items.

1 The student organizes the items into categories that do not make sense or are unimportant.

A Handbook for Classroom Instruction That Works p. 28

slide24

Key Points: Classifying

  • Categories should be related to one another or parallel.
  • It is important to focus on attributes that are important and meaningful to the content.
  • Students must understand the defining characteristics of the categories well enough to justify placement of the items – which gets more difficult with complex content.

4. Having students classify and then reclassify is a key to helping them notice unique distinctions and connections that they might not have noticed had they classified the items only once.

slide25

ANALOGIES

Creating analogies is the process of identifying relationships between pairs of concepts-in other words, identifying relationships between relationships. Like metaphors, analogies help us to see how seemingly dissimilar things are similar, increasing our understanding of new information.

slide26

Identifying Similarities and Differences

TYPES OF RELATIONSHIPS

COMMON TO ANALOGIES

Part to Whole

Change

Function

Quantity/Size

Pkt. 1.2

Similar Concepts

Dissimilar Concepts

Class Membership

Class Name or Class Member

slide27

Typically, analogical thinking takes on the form A:B:: C:D, read as, “A is to B as C is to D” (Sternberg, 1977)

For Example:

Hot:cold::night:day (“hot is to cold as night is to day”) cold and day are opposites of hot and night, respectively.

Carpenter:hammer:: artist:brush (“carpernter is to hammer as artist is to brush”) hammer and brush are tools used by a carpenter and an artist, respectfully. Pkt. 1.3

slide28

Steps to teaching analogies:

1. Present students with structured examples of analogies.For example, a teacher might introduce the format for analogies by providing students with content-area examples like the following:

Thermometer is to temperature

as

Odometer is to mileage

Or

Willy Loman is to tragedy as Falstaff is to comedy

Ask students to explain how the the relationship between A and B is similar to that between C and D. Pkt.2.1

slide29

2. Present students with open-ended analogies.

For example, provide students with an incomplete analogy like the one below;

Evaporation:water

As

Condensation: ( )

Pkt.2.2

slide30

3. Present students with a graphic organizer for analogies:

For example:

is to

Relationship:_____________

As is to

(App.2/24, p6)(pkt2.3)

slide31

For example:Graphic organizer to help students understand the nature of analogies

hammer is to carpenter

carpenter

Relationship:tools used frequently by given professionals

As is to painter

Brush

Painter

slide32

4. Present students with analogy problems.

  • For example:
  • Accelerate:Decelerate::Amicable:___________
  • A. Friendly
  • B. Cooperative
  • C. Hostile
  • Enemy
  • Pkt3.1
slide33

COMMON ANALOGY RELATIONSHIPS

Similar Concepts

Adjacent concepts are synonyms or similar in meaning. Rumor:gossip::energize:__________

demoralize

support

invigorate

Dissimilar Concepts

Adjacent concepts are antonyms or dissimilar in meaning. Happy:sad::tall:________

short

long

pkt3.2 high

slide34

COMMON ANALOGY RELATIONSHIPS

Class Membership

Adjacent concepts belong to the same class or category.

Otter:turtle::red:_________

cat

purple

mood

Class Name and Class Member

One element in a set is a class name, the other is a member of the class

Ballpoint:pen::beetle:_______

plant

winter

Pkt.3.3 insect

slide35

Part to Whole

One element in a set is a part of the other element in the set.

blade:fan::sleeve:__________

pants

shirt

arm

Change

One element in a set turns into the other element.

Maggot:fly::seed:__________

plant

worm

dirt pkt.4.1

slide36

Function

One element in a set performs a function on or for another.

golfer:club::_____________: student

homework

book

tutor

Quantity/Size

The two elements in the set are comparable in terms of quantity or size. Mountain:anthill::____________:mouse

elephant

ant

gerbil pkt.4.2

slide37

Identifying Similarities and Differences

Graphic Organizer for the Abstract Reasoning

in Analogies

is to

Relationship:

as

is to

(APP 43.10)

slide38

Identifying Similarities and Differences

Graphic Organizer for the Abstract Reasoning

in Analogies

thermometer

is to

temperature

Relationship:

Measure incremental changes in something

as

odometer

is to

distance

levers
LEVERS

A lever is a bar that is free to move about a point called afulcrum. The force applied to one end of a lever is called the effort force. The force that is overcome at the other end is called the resistance force. A lever has two arms. The effort arm is the distance from the effort force to the fulcrum. Theresistance arm is the distance from the resistance force to the fulcrum.

Principles of Science, Heimler,Neal,

slide40

Solving Analogy Problems

as

David Hyerle’s Bridge Map

(App. 2/24, p7)(pkt.4.3)

slide43

Solving Analogy Problems

document

book

as

backpack

portfolio

…is carried in

…relating factor

batter

compound

as

elements

ingredients

…a new substance made up of

…relating factor

slide44

Solving Analogy Problems

Offensive Line

Cell membrane

as

Cell

Football team

…only lets certain things pass through

…relating factor

Earthquake

Tsunami

as

Wave

Tremor

……….is an extreme example of

…relating factor

slide45

Solving Analogy Problems

tongue

eye

as

see

?

…is used to

…relating factor

?

walk

as

run

?

…an acceleration or amplification

…relating factor

slide46

Solving Analogy Problems

document

book

as

backpack

portfolio

…is carried in

…relating factor

as

as

as

…relating factor

YOU CREATE ONE!

SHARE WITH A PARTNER

steps to the analogy process
Steps to the Analogy Process

Example: Man : Boy :: king: _________

  • Identify relationships between the first two elements in the first set (man and boy).
  • Identify which element is the first set (man) is most closely related to the single element in the second set (king).
  • Identify which of the completion choices would make the second set of elements have the same relationship as the first set.
slide48

Identifying Similarities and Differences

Analogies

You do some! Be sure to describe the relationship!

  • Spring : Ring :: Coil : (rope, cowl, loop, stretch)
  • Gutenberg : (broadcasting, theology, genetics, printing) :: Marconi : Radio
  • Wisdom : (science, sage, goodness, educator) :: Skill : Virtuoso
  • Dive : (descend, water, float, sink) :: Depth : Surface
  • Surname : Pseudonym :: Clemens : (Samuel, Eliot, Finn, Twain)
  • Elbow : Nerve :: Hinge : (lever, electricity, fulcrum, wire
  • Homophone : (paradigm, antonym, synonym, acronym) :: Sound : Meaning
  • (APP. 2/24, p8)
slide49

Identifying Similarities and Differences

Analogies

You do some - more!

  • Vinegar : (apple, oil, tea, lemon) :: Acetic : Citric
  • Candide : Voltaire :: (Pirandello, Carmen, Quixote, Lazarillo) : Cervantes
  • Salk: Polo :: (Pasteur, Sabin, Lister, Currie) : Rabies
  • Wagon: Limousine :: (passenger, vehicle, buckboard, teamster) : Chauffeur
  • Light : Snack :: (consume, simple, hearty, gobble) : Feast
  • Mason : (jar, trowel, brick, divider) :: Draftsman : Compass
  • Common : (combined, plain, stock, crossing) :: Intersection : Union
  • (festival, week, moon, calendar) : Monday :: Holy : Holiday (APP. 2/24, p9))
slide50

Identifying Similarities and Differences

Analogies

Answers!

  • A spring forms or has the shape of a coil, and a ring forms a loop
  • Marconi is recognized as the inventor of radio, and Gutenberg is recognized as the inventor of movable type for printing
  • A sage posses an extraordinary degree of wisdom; a virtuoso possesses an extraordinary degree of skill
  • To dive is to descend into the water’s depth; to float is to stay on the surface of the water
  • Mark Twain’s real name was Samuel Clemens; his real surname Clemens, but he used Twain as a pseudonym
  • The elbow of an arm functions similar to a hinge on a door or gate, a nerve is a cordlike fiber that functions in the nervous system similar to a wire in an electrical system
  • Words that have the same sound are called homophones; words that have the same meaning are called synonyms
  • Vinegar contains acetic acid; a lemon contains citric acid
slide51

Identifying Similarities and Differences

Analogies

You do some - more!

  • Candide is a character in a novel by Voltaire; Don Quixote is a character in a novel by Cervantes
  • Salk developed the first polio vaccine, Pasteur developed the first rabies treatment. (Sabin developed another polio vaccine, Lister promoted antiseptics, Curie discovered radium)
  • A wagon is driven by a teamster (a term deriving from the “team” of horses that pulls the wagon and a limousine is driven by a chauffeur
  • A snack is a light meal, while a feast is a hearty meal
  • A compass is a tool used by a draftsman, and a trowel is at tool used by a mason (Masons use bricks, but bricks are not considered tools; a divider is another tool used by draftsmen.)
  • In math, the intersection of 2 sets is a set that contains only the elements that are common to both sets; the union of two sets is a new set that contains all the combined elements of both sets
  • The word holiday is derived from the word holy (holy day), and the word Monday is derived from the word moon (moon day)
slide52

IN CONCLUSION...

The eight analogy relationships identified by Lewis and Greene (1982) are common to tests that use analogies.

Reflection:

Explain how you might include the analogy process into curriculum.

Write an analogy that would increase student’s understanding of a concept or term in a present unit of study. Share with the group.

slide54

Metaphors are bridges. They create images, and, by connecting any two different ideas, person, places, and things, they show things in new ways.

The eyes are the windows to the soul.

Trees are earth’s hair.

Love is a rose

slide55

Creating Metaphors

The process of explaining how two seemingly different items are actually similar, at a general level.

slide56

Creating Metaphors

  • Identify key characteristics of an item, or the important information in a passage.

2. State the key characteristics or important information in more general terms.

  • Apply that general language to a new, seemingly different, specific item or passage in a way that exposed the similarities between the original and the new.
  • Explain what you learned.
  • Pkt 5.1
slide57

Abstracting

The process of identifying and articulating the underlying theme or general pattern of information.

  • 1. Identify what is considered important or basic to the information or situation with which you are working.
  • 2. Write that basic information in a more general form by
  • • replacing words referring to specific things with words referring to more general things, and
  • • summarizing information whenever possible.
  • Find new information or a situation to which the general pattern applies. Pkt.5.2
slide58

Original information

General

pattern

New information

slide59

EXTENDED METAPHOR….ABSTRACTING PROCESS

  • Directions:
  • Read C.L. Sholes
  • List specific/literal events
  • Generalize the events
  • Think of a new situation that fits the same pattern
slide60

Identifying Similarities and Differences

When C.L. Sholes was inventing a typewriting machine in the early 1870’s, he found that the machine jammed if he typed too fast. So he deliberately arranged the positions of the letters in a way that forced typists to work slowly. Nevertheless, Sholes’ typewriter design was still a great improvement over earlier models, and so it was soon in use all over the world.

Today, even though typewriters have been improved in many ways, nearly all of them have keyboards like the one Sholes devised in 1872. The letter arrangement is called QWERT, after the five left-hand keys in the top letter row. You can see QWERT keyboards on computer consoles as well as on typewriters.

(continued on next slide)

slide61

SHOLES - continued

Unfortunately, the QWERT arrangement slows typing, encourages errors, and causes greater fatigue than another arrangement devised by August Dvorak in 1930, which has proved in several tests to be much faster and more accurate than QWERT.

Millions of people have learned the QWERT keyboard, however, and it is being taught to students in schools right now. So it seems that we will continue to live with this 19th century mistake.

slide62

Step 1—Specific/Literal Step 2—General/Abstract

C.L. Sholes invented a keyboard, QWERT, that would slow down typists, thus solving the problem of key sticking.

Someone invented/created something to address an issue/problem.

Typewriter keys stopped sticking

The issue/problem went away.

Another keyboard was invented that was shown to be better than QWERT.

Something else was invented that was shown to be better than the original.

QWERT is still used despite the fact that keys no longer stick and another keyboard configuration was shown to be better.

The original invention is still used/accepted even though the issue/problem is no longer present, and something new has been shown to be better.

slide64

Specific/Literal General General Pattern Pattern in new Specific

Step 1

Step 3

Step 2

slide65

THE EMPEROR’S NEW CLOTHES

There once was an emperor who loved new clothes. One day two swindlers convinced him that they could make him very special clothes that would be invisible to anyone foolish or unfit for office. The emperor placed an order immediately, thinking that he would now be able to distinguish wise men from foolish men.

As the swindlers set up their looms and began to work, many people stopped to see the fabric they were weaving. Each person, afraid to admit that they could see no fabric, raved about the beautiful color and texture.

(continued on next slide) (App. 2/24, p10-11)

slide66

THE EMPEROR’S NEW CLOTHES

(continued)

Finally, one morning the clothes were ready. The swindlers presented them to the emperor and pretended to dress him and put imaginary final touches on each piece. The emperor, staring at himself naked in the mirror, agreed that they were the finest clothes he’d ever seen.

The emperor’s subjects had gathered from far and wide to view the new clothes they had all heard so much about. As the emperor marched through the streets, people talked of how beautiful the clothes were. Then, a little boy, not knowing that he would seem foolish if he could not see the clothes, shouted out, “The Emperor has nothing on!” Soon, everyone joined in, “the Emperor is naked!”

The Emperor now felt foolish, but he held his head high and tried to maintain his dignity. The crowd laughed and laughed.

slide67

Specific/Literal

General/Abstract

A vain emperor was convinced by swindlers that they could make him special clothes that would be invisible to anyone foolish or unfit for office.

A person in power with a flaw or an obsession is taken advantage of by someone who promises something unrealistic.

People raved about the color & texture of the fabric, afraid to admit they could see nothing.

Other people see that what was delivered is not what was promised but are afraid to speak out.

When the clothes were ready, the naked emperor paraded through the streets to show off his new clothes.

The person in power, because of his flaw or obsession, refuses to acknowledge the reality of the situation.

A little boy shouted, “The emperor has nothing on!”

An innocent person exposes the truth.

Even though everyone laughed at the emperor, he continued to pretend that he had on clothes

All other people speak out, but the person in power still refuses to acknowledge the truth.

slide68

In the 1820’s, U.S. settlers began moving into the Mexican territory of Texas. At first, the settlers were content to live under the new Mexican republic. But when Santa Anna came to power, he laid down oppressive new laws, making the settlers so resentful of his government that finally, in 1836, they declared Texas to be independent of Mexico.

Santa Anna led an army into Texas to punish the rebels. At a fortress call the Alamo, his troops defeated a vastly outnumbered force of Texans. All of the Texas rebels were killed, but their courage in the face of great odds inspired a rebel battle cry: “Remember the Alamo.” A few months later, the Texans got their revenge. One day, when Santa Anna’s troops were resting in their camp, the Texans launched a surprise attack and defeated Santa Anna. After this defeat, Santa Anna agreed to grant Texas its independence. (App. 2/24, p13)

slide69

Step 1—Specific/Literal Step 2—General/Abstract

In 1820, U.S. citizens settled in the Mexican Territory of Texas.

People from outside entered and settled into a part of an established place.

Santa Anna, ruler of this territory, passed oppressive laws and eventually drove the new settlers to declare Texas as independent.

The leader of the established place was oppressive to newcomers. Newcomers declared their part now belonged to them.

Santa Anna fought back and began to defeat the rebels in military battles—e.g., The Alamo

The leader fought back and began to win—some very highly publicized victories.

The rebels would not give up and finally defeated Santa Anna in a sneak attack. Santa Anna granted Texas its independence.

The newcomers would not give up and finally won with a sneak attack. The leader yielded and gave the newcomers the part they wanted. (App. 2/24, p14)

slide70

Key Points: Abstracting

  • 1. Step 1 of the process-identifying the important or basic literal information-is often the most challenging for students. They will need many opportunities to practice this step.
  • 2. Students often have questions about how general language in the abstract pattern should be. The level of generality that’s appropriate depends on the content and purpose of the assignment.
  • As students apply a general pattern to new specifics and identify the obvious connections, encourage them to make connections that are less obvious and more interesting.
  • Pkt.5.3
slide71

works

Classroom Instruction That

Percentile Gain

3. Reinforcing effort and providing

recognition 29

slide72
.

Reinforcing Effort and Providing Recognition

Generalizations from research on Reinforcing Effort

  • Not all students realize the importance of believing in effort.
  • Students can learn to change their beliefs to an emphasis on effort.

Generalizations from research on Providing Recognition

  • Rewards do not necessarily have a negative effect on intrinsic motivation.
  • Reward is most effective when it is contingent on the attainment of some standard of performance.
  • Abstract symbolic rewards like verbal recognition are more effective than tangible rewards. Pkt.6.2
slide73

Effort Rubric

4. I worked on the task until it was completed. I pushed myself to continue working on the task even when difficulties arose or a solution was not immediately evident. I viewed difficulties that arose as opportunities to strengthen my understanding.

3. I worked on the task until it was completed. I pushed myself to continue working on the task even when difficulties arose or a solution was not immediately evident.

2. I put some effort into the task, but I stopped working when difficulties arose.

1. I put very little effort into the task.

slide74

Achievement Rubric

  • 4. I exceeded the objectives of the task or lesson.
  • 3. I met the objectives of the task or lesson.
  • I met a few of the objectives of the task or lesson, but did not meet others.
  • I did not meet the objectives of the task or lesson.
  • Pkt.7.1
slide75

4

3

2

1

0

Keeping Track of My Learning Name Patrice Austin

Benchmark Adds and subtracts simple fractions

My Goal: To reach a 3 by March 17th.

A March 3

B March 4

C March 6

D March 7

E March 11

F March 14

G March 17

H March 19

I March 24

J

slide76

My Progress in Writing Process-Content and Organization

Goal

4

3

2

1

Date_10/31_

Date__9/17_

Date_9/24_

Date_10/1_

Date_10/20_

Date_11/15_

Date_______

Date_______

slide77

Goal

Effort

My Progress in Writing Process—Content and Organization

4

3

2

1

Achievement

Date_10/31_

Date__9/17_

Date_9/24_

Date_10/1_

Date_10/20_

Date_11/15_

Date_______

Date______

reinforcing effort and providing recognition implications
Reinforcing Effort and Providing RecognitionImplications
  • Chart effort and achievement using effort and achievement rubrics
  • Teach students that effort affects achievement
  • Establish a rationale for recognition
  • Use effective praise as feedback

Pkt.7.2

slide79

Vary Your Responses to Student’s Incorrect Answers

  • What is the most frequently broken bone in the body? (The clavicle – collar bone)
  • Spell broccoli.
  • What do you call a baby rabbit? (A kitten)
  • What is the name of the first shot in a billiards game? (The break)
  • What is Queen Elizabeth’s surname? (Windsor)
slide80

Vary Your Responses to Student’s Incorrect Answers

  • The city of Singapore is in what country? (Singapore)
  • What is the second tallest mountain in the world?
    • (K2. It is next to Everest.)
  • How many items are in a gross? (144)
  • What book did Ken Kesey write that was turned into an Oscar Award winning movie?
  • (One Flew Over the Cuckoo’s Nest)
  • 10. Spell Albuquerque.
slide81

Using

Cues,

Questions,

Advance

Organizers

slide82

works

Percentile Gain

Classroom Instruction That

9. Providing cues, questions, and 22

advanced organizers

warm up fill in the blanks
Warm-up:Fill in the blanks

The questions that p_______ face as they raise ch_________ from in_______ to adult life are not easy to an_________. Both fa_______ and m____________ can become concerned when health problems such as co_______ arise any time after the e_________ stage to later life. Experts recommend that young ch________ should have plenty of s_________ and nutritious food for healthy growth. B_______ and g_______ should not share the same b________ or even sleep in the same r_________. They may be afraid of the d_______.

warm up fill in the blanks84
Warm-up:Fill in the blanks

The questions that poultrymen face as they raise chickens from incubation to adult life are not easy to answer. Both farmers and merchants can become concerned when health problems such as cough arise any time after the egg stage to later life. Experts recommend that young chicks should have plenty of sunshine and nutritious food for healthy growth. Banties_ and geese should not share the same barnyard or even sleep in the same roost. They may be afraid of the dark.

slide85

Aoccdrnig to a rscheearch at Cmabrigde Uinervtisy, it deosn’t mttaer in what oredr the ltteers in a word are, the olny iprtmoatnt tihng is that the frist and lsat ltteer be at the rghit pclae.

The rset can be a toatl mses and you can still raed it wouthit porbelm. This is becusae the huamn mnid deos not raed ervey lteter by istlef, but the word as a wlohe.

  • Our Prior
  • Knowledge
  • helps us construct meaning.
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This procedure is actually quite simple. First, you arrange items into different groups. Of course, one pile may be sufficient depending on how much there is to do. If you have to go somewhere else due to a lack of facilities, that is the next step; otherwise, you are pretty well set. It is important not to overdo things. That is, it is better to do too few things at once than too many. In the short run, this may not seem important, but complications can easily arise. A mistake can be expensive as well. At first, the whole procedure will seem complicated. Soon, however, it will become just another facet of life. It is difficult to foresee any end to the necessity for this task in the immediate future, but then one can never tell.

After the procedure is complete, you arrange the materials into different groups again. Then you can put them into their appropriate places. Eventually, they will be used again, and the whole cycle will then have to be repeated. However, that is a part of life.

  • Our Prior
  • Knowledge
  • helps us construct meaning.
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Caution

Be sure to identify the Essential Knowledge for which student should create summaries, notes, and nonlinguistic representations, and which warrant the use of cues, advance organizers, and questions.

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Learning Goals

As a result of what we do today, you will be

able to demonstrate that you:

Understand the technique of foreshadowing in mysteries.

Can revise writing to improve use of descriptive adverbs.

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Using Cues and Questions

Generalizations from the research:

  • Cues and questions should focus on what is important as opposed to what is unusual.
  • “Higher level” questions produce deeper learning than “lower level” questions.
  • “Waiting” briefly before accepting responses from students has the effect of increasing the sophistication of students’ answers.
  • Questions are effective learning tools even when asked before a learning experience.
slide90

CUES are explicit, straightforward reminders or hints about what students are about to experience.

Questions can also give students hints about what they are to experience. Additionally, questions should be designed to help students obtain a deeper understanding of content and to increase their interest in the topic.

Advance Organizers are structures given to students before the learning experience to help them organize the information they are receiving.

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K - W - L

What I WANT to know about

What I

LEARNED

about

What I

KNOW

about

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“What do you know about UFO stories and alien sightings?”

Research indicates that the more students know about a topic, the more they tend to be interested in it.

Space Unit Learning Goal:

Students will understand the relationship of the various planets to the sun and to each other.

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Questions

Recall Questions

Higher level questions require students to analyze information and then restructure that information or apply what they know.

Inferential Questions

Analytic Questions

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What are the characteristics of urban development in ancient Mesopotamia?

What environmental and cultural factors influenced the development of civilizations in the Indus Valley?

Where is Mesopotamia located?

What are the major bodies of water that surround Mesopotamia?

What are the major cities of Mesopotamia?

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INFERENTIAL QUESTIONS

Asking inferential questions allows students to tap into their prior knowledge in order to fill in a great deal of information not stated.

Events

Things/People

Actions

State of Being

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Using Advance Organizers

Generalizations from the research:

  • Advance organizers should focus on what is important as opposed to what is unusual.
  • “Higher level” advance organizers produce deeper learning than “lower level” advance organizers.
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Common Patterns

Generalization/ Principle

Description

Example

Example

Example

Comparison

Time Sequence

1 2

Cause

Cause

Cause

Effect

Cause

Cause

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Situation: Students are going to the Natural History Museum to spend time viewing the nature dioramas.

  • Identify the knowledge that you might want students to gain as a result of this trip.
    • Prepare an advance graphic organizer for them to use during their visit.
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Classroom Recommendations

1.Help students understand that using cues, questions, and advance organizers can enhance their ability to retrieve and use what they already know about a topic.

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Classroom Recommendations

  • Engage students in activities that:
  • - Provide explicit clues to what they will be learning.
  • - Use inferential and analytic questions as a tool prior to presenting new information to help students think more deeply about new content. (Questions may also be used during and after introducing new content).
  • - Use “wait time” to help deepen students answers.
  • - Use various graphic advance organizers to organize new content.
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Classroom Recommendations

3.Create structures for students to receive feedback on how the use of cues, questions, and advance organizers is helping them retrieve and use what they already know about a topic.

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To what extent do we engage in this behavior or address this issue?

1 >>>>>>2>>>>>>>3>>>>>>4

Not at all To a great extent

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Generating and Testing Hypotheses

Generalizations from the Research

Hypothesis generation and testing can be approached in a more inductive or deductive manner. P. 104

Teachers should ask students to clearly explain their hypothesis and their conclusions. P. 105

Classroom Practice in Generating and Testing Hypothesis

“Teachers can use the process in different tasks across all disciplines. The following six types of tasks all employ hypothesis generation and testing.” (pp 106-110)

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Generating and Testing Hypotheses

Problem Solving

Invention

Decision Making

Systems Analysis

Experimental Inquiry

Investigation pkt.7.3

slide106

About

Decision Making

Reasoning

slide107

VACATION

Two weeks in London

$3,750

Two weeks in Hawaii

$3,300

Two weeks in a Cabin

In the Adirondacks

$1,800

slide108

The STEPSto Decision Making Reasoning

  • Identify a decision you wish to make and the alternatives you are considering.
  • Identify the criteria you consider important.
  • Assign each criterion an importance score.
  • Determine the extent to which each alternative possesses each criterion.
  • Multiply the criterion scores bye the alternative scores to determine which alternative has the highest total points.
  • Based on you reaction to the selected alternative, determine if you want to change importance scores or add or drop criteria.
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Decision Making

?

Criteria

Nutritious Tasty Inexpensive

slide110

Decision Making

Criteria

Nutritious Has Pepperoni Tasty Inexpensive

?

Criteria

Nutritious Tasty Inexpensive

slide111

Generating and Testing Hypotheses

Steps for Decision Making Reasoning

Generating and applying criteria to select from among seemingly equal alternatives. More simply, it is the process of developing and using criteria to select from choices that seem to be equal.

  • What am I trying to decide?
  • What are my choices?
  • What are important criteria for making this decision?
  • How important is each criterion?
  • How well does each of my choices match my criteria?
  • Which choice matches best with the criteria?
  • How do I feel abut the decision? Do I need to change any criteria and try again? (App. 2/24, p15)
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Yugo Tempo Blazer Lexus

Cost

MPG

Roomy

Safety

Style

4x 4x 4x 4x

2x 2x 2x 2x

2x 2x 2x 2x

4x 4x 4x 4x

1x 1x 1x 1x

4

2

2

4

1

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Yugo Tempo Blazer Lexus

Cost

MPG

Roomy

Safety

Style

Approx

$18,000

4

2

2

4

1

4x 4x 4x 4x

2x 2x 2x 2x

2x 2x 2x 2x

4x 4x 4x 4x

1x 1x 1x 1x

4x4 4x4 4x2 4x0

Approx.

15 in city

2x4 2x4 2x2 2x2

Room for 3 kids

2x0 2x2 2x2 2x2

Consum.

Report

4x0 4x4 4x2 4x1

How I look IN the car

1x0 1x2 1x3 1x4

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Yugo Tempo Blazer Lexus

Cost

MPG

Roomy

Safety

Style

Approx

$18,000

4

2

2

4

1

4x 4x 4x 4x

2x 2x 2x 2x

2x 2x 2x 2x

4x 4x 4x 4x

1x 1x 1x 1x

4x4 4x4 4x2 4x0

4x4=16 4x4=16 4x2=8 4x0=0

4x4 4x4 4x2 4x0

Approx.

15 in city

2x4=8 2x4=8 2x2=4 2x2=4

2x4 2x4 2x2 2x2

Room for 3 kids

2x0 2x2 2x2 2x2

2x0=0 2x2=4 2x2=4 2x2=4

Consum.

Report

4x0=0 4x4=16 4x2=8 4x1=4

4x0 4x4 4x2 4x1

How I look IN the car

1x0 1x2 1x3 1x4

1x0=0 1x2=2 1x3=3 1x4=4

24 46 27 16

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Yugo Tempo Blazer Lexus

Cost

MPG

Roomy

Safety

Style

Approx

$18,000

4

2

2

4

1

4x 4x 4x 4x

2x 2x 2x 2x

2x 2x 2x 2x

4x 4x 4x 4x

1x 1x 1x 1x

Approx.

$45,000

4x4 4x4 4x2 4x0

4x4=16 4x4=16 4x2=8 4x0=0

4x4 4x4 4x2 4x0

Approx.

15 in city

2x4=8 2x4=8 2x2=4 2x2=4

2x4 2x4 2x2 2x2

Room for 3 kids

2x0=0 2x2=4 2x2=4 2x2=4

2x0 2x2 2x2 2x2

Color--4

Consum.

Report

4x0=0 4x4=16 4x2=8 4x1=4

4x0 4x4 4x2 4x1

How I look IN the car

1x0 1x2 1x3 1x4

1x0=0 1x2=2 1x3=3 1x4=4

24 46 27 16

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Key Points: Decision Making

  • Help students understand how important it is to generate clear criteria that accurately identify the conditions that selected alternatives need to meet.
  • Hold students accountable for rigorously applying criteria to alternatives.
  • Vary the way that you use decision making to maximize its potential for encouraging students to use the knowledge they are learning in a unit of study.
slide117

DECISION MAKING Task

  • It is 1969. You are on the board of Time magazine. For the cover of the December issue, you want to select a Person of the Decade. Your job is to decide which person should be selected and justify your decision to the publishers by listing the people that were considered, the criteria you used, and how each person was rated under each criterion. Report on:
  • The criteria you used and the weights you applied to each;
  • The individuals you considered and the extent to which they met your criteria; and
  • Your final selection. (App. 2/24,p17)
slide118

TIME Person of the Year

1960

1961

1962

1963

1964

1965

1966

1967

1968

1969

U.S. Scientists

John R. Kennedy

Pope John XXIII

Martin Luther King Jr.

Lyndon Johnson

General Westmoreland

The Young Generation

Lyndon Johnson

Apollo Astronauts (Anders, Borman, Lovell)

Middle Americans

(App. 2/24, p18)

slide119

Decision Making Matrix

Choices

Criteria