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Presidential Power. Institutional Sources of Presidential Power Powers enumerated in Constitution Behavioral or Individual Sources of Presidential Power Power of Persuasion- Neustadt Importance of Personality- Barber Going Public- Kernell. Institutional Sources of Presidential Power.

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presidential power
Presidential Power
  • Institutional Sources of Presidential Power
    • Powers enumerated in Constitution
  • Behavioral or Individual Sources of Presidential Power
    • Power of Persuasion- Neustadt
    • Importance of Personality- Barber
    • Going Public- Kernell
institutional sources of presidential power
Institutional Sources of Presidential Power
  • Chief of State (symbolic/ceremonial roles)
  • Chief Executive (appointment power, control over executive branch/executing laws)
  • Commander-in-Chief
  • Chief Diplomat
  • Chief Legislator (recommending legislation, executive orders, veto/signing legislation)
individual sources of presidential power
Individual Sources of Presidential Power
  • Power of Persuasion
    • Richard Neustadt - Presidential Power and the Modern Presidents
  • Importance of Personality
    • James Barber – Presidential Character
  • “Going Public”
    • Samuel Kernell – Going Public
neustadt and presidential power
Neustadt and Presidential Power
  • Way to persuade is to convince members of Congress that what the W.H. wants of them is what they ought to do for their own sake and on their authority
  • Power of persuasion is the power to bargain
  • Key is a bargaining game
neustadt continued
Neustadt Continued
  • All of the players have different advantages:
  • President- status of office, public standing (if high), veto, appointments, budget
  • Bureaucracy- since also beholden to Congress, will not necessarily go along with what Executive wants
  • Congress- hold purse strings, approve appointments
  • Public- only important in approval of President and to prove that the actor cares about an issue
barber presidential character
Barber – Presidential Character
  • Personality plays an important role in shaping presidential behavior
  • Will affect whether president has persuasion powers
  • Two Important dimensions:
    • Active/Passive- Energy towards Government or what Government should do
    • Negative/Positive- How feel about the job
barber typology of 4 types
Barber - Typology of 4 Types
  • Active-Positive
    • High self esteem, oriented towards results, adaptive
    • Examples- Kennedy, Truman, and FDR
  • Active-Negative
    • Intense effort with low emotional reward, motivated by personal ambition-
    • Examples- Johnson and Nixon
barber typology of 4 types1
Barber - Typology of 4 Types
  • Passive-Positive
    • Try to please others, compliant with decisions by others
    • Example- Reagan
  • Passive-Negative
    • Minimal Performance, low self esteem, work out of sense of duty
    • Example- Washington, Eisenhower?
  • Where would we place Clinton or George W. Bush?
kernell going public
Kernell – Going Public
  • Definition
    • Strategy of appealing to the public to get Congress to do what the President Wants
  • Examples
    • Clinton and Health Care Reform
    • George W. Bush and the Homeland Security Bill
  • Evidence for its Importance
    • Public addresses, travel, speeches
going public vs bargaining
Going Public vs. Bargaining
  • Why does Going public violate bargaining model?
    • Rarely includes the kind of exchanges in bargaining theory
    • No benefits to members from complying with the President- only costs if don’t comply
    • Entails public posturing- makes compromise difficult
    • Undermines the legitimacy of other politicians
why growth of going public
Why Growth of Going Public?
  • Growth of the welfare state
    • Constituencies outside of D.C.
  • Modern Communications
    • President in News everyday
    • Easier to mobilize public opinion
  • Decline of Political Parties- Divided Government
    • Hard to bargain with individual members, especially if different party
implications of going public
Implications of Going Public
  • Congress will only listen if the President has high levels of approval (50% at least)
  • Constant Campaign to Sway Voters
  • Every White House since Carter has had an in-house pollster
    • Constantly track public approval of President and opinion over the issues
evaluation of theories of presidential power
Evaluation of Theories of Presidential Power
  • Presidents clearly have institutional power
    • However, the use of these powers have varied over time
  • Most political scientists think that Barber’s “presidential character/personality” measure is no good
  • Going public vs. Bargaining