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NATs (Network Address Translators). Henning Schulzrinne Dept. of Computer Science Columbia University Fall 2003. NATs. Network address translation = local, LAN-specific address space translated to small number of globally routable IP addresses Motivation: scarce address space

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nats network address translators

NATs (Network Address Translators)

Henning Schulzrinne

Dept. of Computer Science

Columbia University

Fall 2003

slide2
NATs
  • Network address translation = local, LAN-specific address space translated to small number of globally routable IP addresses
  • Motivation:
    • scarce address space
      • cost: about $9k/year for up to 262,000 addresses
    • prevent home broadband users from running servers at home
    • security: prevent unsolicited inbound requests
    • avoid renumbering if provider changes
      • most small/mid-sized LANs inherit address space from ISP
prevalence of nats
Prevalence of NATs
  • Claim: 50% of broadband users are behind NATs
  • All Linksys/D-Link/Netgear home routers are NATs
  • Measurement: for Quake III users, about 17-25% using NAT (May/June 2001)
nat details
NAT details
  • RFC 1631 (first description)
  • RFC 1918 (private-use addresses)
  • RFC 2663
  • RFC 2776
  • RFC 3022
  • RFC 3027
  • RFC 3235
  • RFC 3424
  • RFC 3489 (STUN)
nat types
NAT types
  • All use net-10/8 (10.*.*.*) or 192.168/16 (172.16/12 also available)
  • Address translation
  • Address-and-port translation (NAPT)
    • most common form today, still called NAT
    • one external (global) IP address