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Leadership/Motivation. H Edu 4790/6790. Leadership. The process of facilitating others to work hard to accomplish important tasks. Legitimate power Reward power Coercive power Expert power Referent power. Position Personal. Power. Activity: Sources and Uses. Peer Subordinate Boss

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Leadership motivation l.jpg

Leadership/Motivation

H Edu 4790/6790


Leadership l.jpg
Leadership

  • The process of facilitating others to work hard to accomplish important tasks.


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Legitimate power

Reward power

Coercive power

Expert power

Referent power

Position

Personal

Power


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Activity: Sources and Uses

  • Peer

  • Subordinate

  • Boss

  • What specific sources of power were used?

  • What is required to be successful?


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Power

  • Not necessarily independent, can be complementary

  • Leaders who use reward power wisely strengthen referent power

  • Leaders who abuse coercive power quickly lose referent power


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Influence strategies

  • Retribution strategies

    • Assertiveness

    • Appeal to higher authority

    • Sanctions


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Influence strategies (cont)

  • Reason strategies

    • Facts

    • Friendliness

    • Coalition


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Influence strategies (cont)

  • Reciprocity strategies

    • Bargaining

    • Involvement


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Leadership Behavior

  • Task vs people

    • Ohio State University

    • University of Michigan

    • Blake and McCanse’s Leadership Grid


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Leadership Grid

Country Club Management

Thoughtful attention to the needs of people for satisfying relationships leads to a comfortable, friendly organization atmosphere

and work

tempo.

Team Management

Work accomplishment is from

committed people interdepen- dence through a “common stake”

in organization purpose leads to

relationships

of trust and respect.

High

Middle-of-Road Management

Adequate organization performance is possible through balancing the necessity to get out work with maintaining morale of people at a satisfactory level.

Concern for people

Authority-Obedience

Management

Efficiency in operations result from arranging conditions of work in such a way that human elements interfere to a minimum degree.

Impoverished Management

Exertion of minimum effort to get

required work done is approp-

riate to sustain organization

membership.

Low

Low

High

Concern for production


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Leadership Behavior (cont)

  • Contingency Models

    • Fiedler

    • Hersey-Blanchard

    • House’s Path-Goal Leadership Theory

    • Vroom-Jago


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Fiedler

  • Least-Preferred Coworker Scale

  • Leadership style is part of one’s personality

  • Put one’s style where it is a good fit


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Hersey and Blanchard

High

Participating

Selling

Relationship Behavior

Delegating

Telling

High

Low

Task Behavior

Able and Able but Unable but Unable and

willing or unwilling willing or unwilling or

confident insecure confident insecure


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House’s Path-Goal

  • Directive

  • Supportive

  • Achievement-oriented

  • Participative


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Vroom-Jago Leader-Participation

  • Authority decision

  • Consultative decision

  • Group decision


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Vroom-Jago Leader-Participation

  • Group

    • Lack information

    • Problem is unclear

    • Acceptance is necessary

    • Adequate time


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Vroom-Jago Leader-Participation

  • Individual

    • Greater expertise

    • Confident and capable

    • Others likely to accept

    • Little or no time



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McGregor

  • Theory X

  • Theory Y


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Motivation Theories - Content

  • Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs

    • Physiological needs

    • Safety and security

    • Affection and social activity

    • Esteem and status

    • Self-realization and fulfillment


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Motivation Theories - Content

  • Alderfer’s ERG Theory

    • Existence needs

    • Relatedness needs

    • Growth needs


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Motivation Theories - Content

  • Herzberg’s Two-factor Theory

    • What Motivates You?

    • Satisfiers or motivators

      • Job content

    • Dissatisfiers or hygiene

      • Job context

    • Motivators and part of the job, while hygiene factors can be controlled


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Motivation Theories - Content

  • McClelland’s Acquire Needs Theory

    • People learn their needs

    • Need for achievement

    • Need for power

    • Need for affiliation


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Motivation Theories - Process

  • Vroom’s Expectancy Theory

    • M = E x I x V

    • E = expectancy or efforts make the desired performance or behavior more likely

    • I = instrumentality or desired outcomes

    • V = value of outcome


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Motivation Theories - Process

  • Adam’s Equity Theory

    • Op = Oo

      Ip = Io

    • Responses


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Motivation Theories - Process

  • Locke’s Goal-Setting Theory

    • Goal specificity, measurability

    • Goal difficulty

    • MBO – management by objectives


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Motivation Theories - Reinforcement

  • Thorndike’s Law of Effect

  • Skinner’s Reinforcement Theory

    • Positive reinforcement

    • Negative reinforcement

    • Punishment

    • Extinction


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Motivation

  • Activity

    • Form groups

    • Analyze ads

    • Find examples of each theory

    • Report to class


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Maslow’s

Alderfer

Herzberg

McClelland

Vroom

Adams

Locke

Skinner

Motivation Theories