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Leadership/Motivation. H Edu 4790/6790. Leadership. The process of facilitating others to work hard to accomplish important tasks. Legitimate power Reward power Coercive power Expert power Referent power. Position Personal. Power. Activity: Sources and Uses. Peer Subordinate Boss

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H Edu 4790/6790

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  • The process of facilitating others to work hard to accomplish important tasks.

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Legitimate power

Reward power

Coercive power

Expert power

Referent power




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Activity: Sources and Uses

  • Peer

  • Subordinate

  • Boss

  • What specific sources of power were used?

  • What is required to be successful?

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  • Not necessarily independent, can be complementary

  • Leaders who use reward power wisely strengthen referent power

  • Leaders who abuse coercive power quickly lose referent power

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Influence strategies

  • Retribution strategies

    • Assertiveness

    • Appeal to higher authority

    • Sanctions

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Influence strategies (cont)

  • Reason strategies

    • Facts

    • Friendliness

    • Coalition

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Influence strategies (cont)

  • Reciprocity strategies

    • Bargaining

    • Involvement

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Leadership Behavior

  • Task vs people

    • Ohio State University

    • University of Michigan

    • Blake and McCanse’s Leadership Grid

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Leadership Grid

Country Club Management

Thoughtful attention to the needs of people for satisfying relationships leads to a comfortable, friendly organization atmosphere

and work


Team Management

Work accomplishment is from

committed people interdepen- dence through a “common stake”

in organization purpose leads to


of trust and respect.


Middle-of-Road Management

Adequate organization performance is possible through balancing the necessity to get out work with maintaining morale of people at a satisfactory level.

Concern for people



Efficiency in operations result from arranging conditions of work in such a way that human elements interfere to a minimum degree.

Impoverished Management

Exertion of minimum effort to get

required work done is approp-

riate to sustain organization





Concern for production

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Leadership Behavior (cont)

  • Contingency Models

    • Fiedler

    • Hersey-Blanchard

    • House’s Path-Goal Leadership Theory

    • Vroom-Jago

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  • Least-Preferred Coworker Scale

  • Leadership style is part of one’s personality

  • Put one’s style where it is a good fit

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Hersey and Blanchard




Relationship Behavior





Task Behavior

Able and Able but Unable but Unable and

willing or unwilling willing or unwilling or

confident insecure confident insecure

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House’s Path-Goal

  • Directive

  • Supportive

  • Achievement-oriented

  • Participative

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Vroom-Jago Leader-Participation

  • Authority decision

  • Consultative decision

  • Group decision

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Vroom-Jago Leader-Participation

  • Group

    • Lack information

    • Problem is unclear

    • Acceptance is necessary

    • Adequate time

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Vroom-Jago Leader-Participation

  • Individual

    • Greater expertise

    • Confident and capable

    • Others likely to accept

    • Little or no time

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  • Theory X

  • Theory Y

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Motivation Theories - Content

  • Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs

    • Physiological needs

    • Safety and security

    • Affection and social activity

    • Esteem and status

    • Self-realization and fulfillment

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Motivation Theories - Content

  • Alderfer’s ERG Theory

    • Existence needs

    • Relatedness needs

    • Growth needs

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Motivation Theories - Content

  • Herzberg’s Two-factor Theory

    • What Motivates You?

    • Satisfiers or motivators

      • Job content

    • Dissatisfiers or hygiene

      • Job context

    • Motivators and part of the job, while hygiene factors can be controlled

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Motivation Theories - Content

  • McClelland’s Acquire Needs Theory

    • People learn their needs

    • Need for achievement

    • Need for power

    • Need for affiliation

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Motivation Theories - Process

  • Vroom’s Expectancy Theory

    • M = E x I x V

    • E = expectancy or efforts make the desired performance or behavior more likely

    • I = instrumentality or desired outcomes

    • V = value of outcome

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Motivation Theories - Process

  • Adam’s Equity Theory

    • Op = Oo

      Ip = Io

    • Responses

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Motivation Theories - Process

  • Locke’s Goal-Setting Theory

    • Goal specificity, measurability

    • Goal difficulty

    • MBO – management by objectives

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Motivation Theories - Reinforcement

  • Thorndike’s Law of Effect

  • Skinner’s Reinforcement Theory

    • Positive reinforcement

    • Negative reinforcement

    • Punishment

    • Extinction

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  • Activity

    • Form groups

    • Analyze ads

    • Find examples of each theory

    • Report to class

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Motivation Theories